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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for the population defined within the study period (N = 60,094)

From: Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study

Variable n or mean % or SD
Age 67.48 12.66
Sex: female 26,893 44.75%
Ethnicity
 Asian 3401 5.66%
 Black 1251 2.08%
 Mixed 386 0.64%
 Other 680 1.13%
 White 50,011 83.22%
 Missing 4365 7.26%
IMD
 Score 10.25 5.58
 Missing 30 0.05%
Region
 North East 1511 2.51%
 North West 10,565 17.58%
 Yorkshire and The Humber 2310 3.84%
 East Midlands 1311 2.18%
 West Midlands 7163 11.92%
 East of England 6184 10.29%
 South West 8112 13.50%
 South Central 7352 12.23%
 London 7825 13.02%
 South East Coast 7761 12.91%
BMI
 Underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2) 458 0.76%
 Ideal weight (≥ 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) 8706 14.49%
 Overweight (≥ 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2) 19,874 33.07%
 Obese (≥ 30.0 kg/m2) 30,337 50.48%
 Missing 719 1.20%
Never smoker 28,659 47.69%
Ex-smoker 22,540 37.51%
Current smoker 8782 14.61%
Smoking: missing 113 0.19%
Alcohol (units/week)
 0 9714 16.16%
 1–14 35,282 58.71%
 15–42 5947 9.90%
 > 42 1343 2.23%
 Missing 7808 12.99%
Number of comorbidities 2.30 1.63
Number of hospitalisations during 2010–2011 0.16 0.52
Duration of diabetes (years) 7.14 5.31
Number of diabetes complications 1.35 1.17
Number of GLT prescriptions within preceding 6 months 1.24 0.98
Insulin prescription within preceding 6 months (Y/N) 6210 10.33%
Number of prescriptions within preceding 6 months 7.43 8.59
  1. SD, standard deviation; IMD, index of multiple deprivation; BMI, body mass index; GLT, glucose-lowering therapy