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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (with corresponding 95% CIs and p values) for DR and STDR given QOF exposures after 1:1 propensity score matching, as well as adjusted sample sizes after propensity score matching (N) with corresponding outcome events by exposure group

From: Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study

    Outcome events Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses*
Outcome Exposure (indicator met) N Exposed group Unexposed group HR 95% CI p HR 95% CI p
Retinopathy HbA1c 37,182 2575 2897 0.87 0.83–0.92 < 0.0001 0.94 0.89–0.99 0.0300
Blood pressure 50,426 3291 3721 0.88 0.84–0.92 < 0.0001 0.87 0.83–0.92 < 0.0001
Cholesterol 30,978 2164 2018 1.01 0.95–1.08 0.6988 1.03 0.97–1.10 0.2918
All QOF indicators 40,220 2402 2773 0.84 0.80–0.89 < 0.0001 0.86 0.81–0.91 < 0.0001
Sight-threatening retinopathy HbA1c 37,182 235 370 0.66 0.56–0.78 < 0.0001 0.74 0.62–0.87 0.0002
Blood pressure 50,426 296 400 0.79 0.68–0.92 0.0022 0.78 0.67–0.91 0.0015
Cholesterol 30,978 200 224 0.80 0.66–0.97 0.0249 0.82 0.67–0.99 0.0428
All QOF indicators 40,220 191 249 0.75 0.62–0.90 0.0023 0.77 0.64–0.93 0.0065
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; QOF, Quality Outcomes Framework. *Adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation, practice region, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, number of other co-morbid conditions, hospitalisations, duration of diabetes, diabetes complications, number of glucose-lowering therapies, and insulin prescription status