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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (with corresponding 95% CIs and p values) for DR and STDR given NDA exposures after 1:1 propensity score matching, as well as adjusted sample sizes after propensity score matching (N) with corresponding outcome events by exposure group

From: Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study

    Outcome events Unadjusted analyses Adjusted analyses*
Outcome Exposure (processes completed) N Exposed group Unexposed group HR 95% CI p HR 95% CI p
Retinopathy 4–6 (vs. 0–3) 5438 309 282 1.14 0.97–1.33 0.1165 1.16 0.98–1.36 0.0793
7–9 (vs. 0–3) 14,052 968 831 1.13 1.03–1.24 0.0097 1.07 0.98–1.18 0.1378
7–9 (vs. 4–6) 5484 395 289 1.15 0.98–1.34 0.0818 1.15 0.98–1.35 0.0942
9 (vs. < 9) 49,602 3874 3220 1.02 0.97–1.07 0.4477 1.03 0.99–1.08 0.1703
Sight-threatening retinopathy 4–6 (vs. 0–3) 5438 40 39 1.10 0.71–1.69 0.6834 1.14 0.73–1.78 0.5715
7–9 (vs. 0–3) 14,052 84 120 0.75 0.57–0.98 0.0325 0.72 0.55–0.94 0.0166
7–9 (vs. 4–6) 5484 39 39 1.07 0.70–1.63 0.7669 1.14 0.73–1.78 0.5720
9 (vs. < 9) 49,602 357 351 0.85 0.74–0.99 0.0372 0.88 0.76–1.03 0.1083
  1. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; *adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation, practice region, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, number of other co-morbid conditions, hospitalisations, duration of diabetes, diabetes complications, number of glucose-lowering therapies, and insulin prescription status