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Table 2 Sex-specific multiple-adjusted rates of dementia and women-to-men difference of rate differences for each risk factor

From: Sex differences in the association between major cardiovascular risk factors in midlife and dementia: a cohort study using data from the UK Biobank

Variables Rates/10,000 person years (95% CI) Difference of rate differences (95% CI)
Women (n = 273,262) Men (n = 228,964)
AHA hypertension categories:
 Normal 6.43 (5.49, 7.37) 8.71 (7.32, 10.11)
 Elevated 5.23 (4.43, 6.02) 7.24 (6.20, 8.27) − 0.27 (− 2.37, 1.82)
 Stage 1 hypertension 5.69 (5.10, 6.28) 7.17 (6.49, 7.85) − 0.80 (− 2.68, 1.08)
 Stage 2 hypertension 6.44 (6.00, 6.87) 7.05 (6.63, 7.47) − 1.67 (− 3.45, 0.11)
Smoking status:
 Never smoker* 5.78 (5.42, 6.13) 7.27 (6.77, 7.76)
 Former smoker 5.92 (5.46, 6.38) 7.99 (7.50, 8.47) 0.57 (− 0.33, 1.48)
 Current smoker 8.11 (6.93, 9.29) 8.98 (7.89, 10.06) − 0.63 (− 2.35, 1.09)
Smoking intensity (average number of cigarettes smoked daily):
 Never smoker** 5.19 (4.87, 5.51) 6.53 (6.08, 6.97)
 1–9 cigarettes 5.58 (3.43, 7.72) 10.47 (6.78, 14.17) 3.56 (− 0.75, 7.87)
 10–19 cigarettes 6.76 (5.09, 8.43) 7.82 (5.86, 9.77) − 0.28 (−2.91, 2.36)
 20 cigarettes 8.19 (5.91, 10.47) 10.56 (8.37, 12.75) 1.04 (− 2.18, 4.25)
Diabetes:
 No diabetes 5.78 (5.46, 6.10) 6.74 (6.39, 7.08)
 Type 1# 15.74 (4.77, 26.71) 17.63 (7.58, 27.67) 0.93 (− 13.96, 15.81)
 Type 2 9.72 (8.12, 11.33) 12.34 (10.80, 13.89) 1.66 (− 0.62, 3.94)
Body mass index:
 Healthy weight (18.5–24.9) 6.03 (5.55, 6.50) 8.68 (7.97, 9.40)
 Underweight (< 18.5) 10.52 (6.30, 14.73) 10.68 (2.75, 18.60) − 2.50 (− 11.51, 6.52)
 Overweight (25.0–29.9) 5.57 (5.15, 6.00) 7.01 (6.57, 7.46) − 1.22 (− 2.27, − 0.16)
 Obese (30.0 and above) 6.67 (6.09, 7.24) 8.16 (7.50, 8.82) − 1.16 (− 2.39, 0.07)
Stroke:
 None 5.87 (5.60, 6.14) 7.52 (7.19, 7.85)
 History of stroke 14.64 (11.51, 17.76) 17.05 (14.36, 19.74) 0.76 (− 3.38, 4.91)
Townsend score thirds:
 High 5.37 (4.97, 5.77) 6.35 (5.93, 6.77)
 Middle 5.98 (5.43, 6.52) 7.30 (6.68, 7.92) 0.34 (− 0.65, 1.32)
 Low 8.69 (7.85, 9.53) 9.60 (8.70, 10.51) − 0.07 (− 1.42, 1.29)
Lipids:
 Normal cholesterol 6.04 (5.66, 6.42) 7.33 (6.95, 7.70)
 Elevated cholesterol 6.58 (6.08, 7.08) 7.91 (7.22, 8.59) 0.04 (− 0.98, 1.06)
  1. AHA American Heart Association
  2. All models were adjusted for age. Hypertension was adjusted for smoking status, total cholesterol, body mass index, diabetes, socioeconomic status, lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensive drugs. Diabetes was adjusted for smoking status, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, socioeconomic status, lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensive drugs. Socioeconomic status was adjusted for smoking status, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, body mass index, diabetes, lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensive drugs. Body mass index was adjusted for smoking status and socioeconomic status. Elevated cholesterol was adjusted for smoking status, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, socioeconomic status, lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensive drugs
  3. *Models for smoking status (*) and smoking intensity (**) were fitted using different variables, given the model for smoking intensity excluded former smokers and those with missing cigarette consumption, and thus produced slightly different multiple-adjusted rates of dementia for the never smoker category compared to the rates in the model for smoking status
  4. #Defined as diagnosis before the age of 30 and receiving insulin treatment