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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with the neonatal gut microbiota and metabolome

Variables GDM group (n=147) Control group (n=271) P
Maternal
 Age, years (mean ± SD) 29.51±3.79 29.04±4.00 0.244
 Pre-pregnancy BMI, kg/m2 (mean ± SD) 21.55±2.99 21.20±3.75 0.327
 Smoking status [n (%)]
  Ever 0 (0.00) 2 (0.74) 0.763
  Never 147 (100.00) 269 (99.26)
 Second-hand smoking [n (%)]
  Yes 31 (21.09) 75 (27.68) 0.174
  No 116 (78.91) 196 (72.32)
 Drinking status [n (%)]
  Ever 1 (0.68) 6 (2.21) 0.443
  Never 146 (99.32) 265 (97.79)
 Parity [n (%)]
  Nulliparae 127 (86.39) 219 (80.81) 0.191
  Multiparae 20 (13.61) 52 (19.19)
 Family history of diabetes [n (%)]
  Yes 24 (16.33) 35 (12.92) 0.418
  No 123 (83.67) 236 (87.08)
 Gestational age, days (mean ± SD) 277.75±7.47 276.37±7.96 0.085
 Peripartum antibiotics [n (%)]
  Yes 24 (16.33) 27 (9.96) 0.082
  No 123 (3.67) 244 (90.04)
Neonatal
 Sex [n (%)]
  Boy 74 (50.34) 140 (51.66) 0.876
  Girl 73 (49.66) 131 (48.34)
 Delivery status [n (%)]
  Vaginal 87 (59.18) 201 (74.17) 0.002
  Cesarean 60 (40.82) 70 (25.83)
 BW, g (mean ± SD) 3511.63±425.40 3329.22±347.42 < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, BW birth weight