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Table 1 Diagnostic criteria for meningitis and organisms detected

From: Clinical features of bacterial meningitis among hospitalised children in Kenya

Diagnostic criteria Age <1year (n=33) Age 1–4years
(n=35)
Age ≥5years
(n=30)
Total positives Highest criteria for meningitisa
CSF culture
Gram positive
Streptococcus pneumoniae 5 5 6 16b 16
Haemophilus influenzae 3 2 0 5c 5
Staphylococcus aureus 1 0 0 1d 1
Gram negative
Escherichia coli 0 1 0 1 1
Klebsiella pneumonia 1 1 0 2e 2
 Non-typhoidal Salmonella sp. 2 0 0 2f 2
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1 0 0 1g 1
Proteus mirabilis 1 0 0 1h 1
Cryptococcus neoformans 0 0 2 2i 2
Total 14 9 8 31 31
Latex antigen test
Streptococcus pneumoniae 7 5 6 18 4j
Haemophilus influenzae 2 3 0 5 3k
Cryptococcus neoformans 0 0 2 2 1
Total 9 8 8 25 8
Gram-stain
 Gram-positive cocci 8 8 5 21 4
 Gram-negative rods 4 3 0 7 0
Total 12 11 5 28 4
Indian ink 0 0 1 1 0
CSF WCC ≥50 cells/μl 29 29 27 85 52l
CSF/blood glucose ratio <0.1 7 5 3 15 3
Total      98
  1. aHierarchical order of criteria for meningitis: (i) positive CSF culture for a known pathogen, (ii) positive CSF antigen test, (iii) an organism observed on CSF microscopy (Gram stain or Indian Ink), (iv) CSF leucocyte count ≥50 cells/μL, and (v) CSF to blood glucose ratio <0.1
  2. b14/16 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl, 14/16 had positive S. pneumoniae antigen test, 14/16 had positive Gram stain, and 5/16 had CSF/blood glucose ratio <0.1
  3. c5/5 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl, 2/5 had positive H. influenzae antigen test, 3/5 had positive Gram stain, and 3/5 had CSF/blood glucose ratio <0.1
  4. dHad WCC ≥50 cells/μl and positive Gram stain
  5. e1/2 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl and positive Gram stain
  6. f1/2 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl and positive Gram stain. 1/2 had CSF/Blood glucose ratio <0.1
  7. gHad WCC ≥50 cells/μl and positive Gram stain
  8. hHad WCC ≥50 cells/μl, positive Gram stain and CSF/blood glucose ratio <0.1
  9. i1/2 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl, positive Indian Ink stain and positive Cryptococcal antigen test
  10. j2/4 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl and positive Gram stain
  11. k3/3 had WCC ≥50 cells/μl, 2/3 had positive Gram stain, and 1/3 had CSF/blood glucose ratio <0.1
  12. l2/52 had CSF/blood glucose ratio <0.1