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Table 2 Clinical features at admission

From: Clinical features of bacterial meningitis among hospitalised children in Kenya

 

No meningitis (n=12,837)

Meningitis (n=98)

P valuea

Bulging fontanelleb

 Absent

4490 (98)

37 (82)

<0.001

 Present

51 (1.1)

8 (18)

 Missing

29 (0.6)

0 (0)

Neck stiffness

 Absent

12,652 (99)

79 (81)

<0.001

 Present

96 (0.8)

19 (19)

 Missing

89 (0.7)

0 (0)

Cyanosis

 Absent

12,702 (99)

98 (100)

0.594

 Present

46 (0.3)

0 (0)

 Missing

89 (0.7)

0 (0)

History of seizures within febrile convulsion age rangec

 No seizures

9990 (78)

48 (49)

<0.001

 Seizures within febrile convulsion age range

2187 [17]

34 (35)

 Seizures outside febrile convulsion age range

573 (4.5)

16 (16)

 Missing

87 (0.7)

0 (0)

Type of convulsion at any age

 No seizures

9990 (78)

48 (49)

<0.001

 Unknown type

81 (0.6)

2 (2.0)

 Generalisedd

2354 [18]

40 (41)

 Focale

325 (2.5)

8 (8.2)

 Missing

87 (0.7)

0 (0)

Conscious level

 Normal

9338 (73)

46 (47)

<0.001

 Lethargic

1444 [11]

16 (16)

 Agitated

159 (1.2)

2 (2.0)

 Impaired consciousnessf

1807 [14]

34 (35)

 Missing

89 (0.7)

0 (0)

History of fever

 Absent

4070 (32)

10 (10)

<0.001

 Present

8681 (68)

88 (90)

 Missing

86 (0.7)

0 (0)

Axillary temperature, 0C

 <36

717 (5.6)

4 (4.1)

0.032

 36-38.9

10,080 (79)

68 (69)

 ≥39

2016 [16]

26 (27)

 Missing

24 (0.2)

0 (0)

Malaria

 Negative

10,346 (81)

84 (86)

0.201

 Positive

2491 [19]

14 (14)

  1. aCompares children with definite meningitis (Group B, n=98) to children with no meningitis [Group A (n=10,384) + Group D (n=2453)]. Excludes children with possible meningitis (Group C, n=51)
  2. bCut-off age for assessment of fontanel closure was 18 months. Analysis of bulging fontanel was limited to 4615 children aged ≤18 months (45 with meningitis and 4570 without meningitis); hence, column totals are less than those of other variables on the table
  3. cFebrile convulsions occurring in children age between 6 months and 6 years
  4. dInvolving both sides of the body with associated loss of consciousness
  5. eFocal, involving one side of the body, and may or may not become generalised
  6. fBlantyre Coma Score (BCS) <4 up to 9 months and <5 at ≥9 months (Eyes: 1=watches/follows, 0=none; Cry: 2=normal, 1=moan/weak, 0=none; Motor: 2=localises stimulus, 1=withdraws, 0=other/none)