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Table 1 Characteristics of participants, overall and according to glucocorticoid exposure at the end of follow-up

From: Use of systemic glucocorticoids and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women

Characteristics at the end of follow-up1 All women (n = 62,512) Exposure at the end of follow-up
Never/occasional users (n = 45,138) Recurrent users (n = 17,374)
Sociodemographic factors
Age (years), mean (SD) 72.1 (6.7) 71.8 (6.4) 72.8 (6.3)
Educational level, N (%)
  < High school 6516 (11) 4536 (10) 1980 (11)
  From high school to 4 years higher education 45,138 (72) 32,771 (73) 12,367 (71)
  At least 5 years higher education 10,858 (17) 7831 (17) 3027 (18)
Lifestyle and reproductive factors
BMI (kg/m2), N (%)
  < 18.5 2626 (4) 1978 (4) 648 (4)
  ≥ 18.5 to < 23 25,409 (41) 19,037 (42) 6372 (37)
  ≥ 23 to < 25 13,197 (21) 9499 (21) 3698 (21)
  ≥ 25 to < 30 16,139 (26) 11,207 (25) 4932 (28)
  ≥ 30 5141 (8) 3417 (8) 1724 (10)
Physical activity (Met-h/week), N (%)
  ≤ 34.8 15,649 (25) 11,115 (25) 4534 (26)
  > 34.8 to ≤ 57.6 15,680 (25) 11,329 (25) 4351 (25)
  > 57.6 to ≤ 88.8 15,567 (25) 11,306 (25) 4261 (25)
  > 88.8 15,616 (25) 11,388 (25) 4228 (24)
Smoking status, N (%)
  Never smoker 33,281 (53) 24,229 (54) 9052 (52)
  Current smoker 4741 (8) 3307 (7) 1434 (8)
  Past smoker 24,490 (39) 17,602 (39) 6888 (40)
Alcohol intake (g/day), N (%)
  Abstainer 7832 (13) 5694 (13) 2138 (13)
  ≤ 5 16,796 (27) 12,198 (27) 4598 (26)
  > 5 to ≤ 10 9357 (15) 6863 (15) 2494 (14)
  > 10 to ≤ 20 12,053 (19) 8700 (19) 3353 (19)
  > 20 12,522 (20) 8957 (20) 3565 (21)
  Missing 3952 (6) 2726 (6) 1226 (7)
Breastfeeding, N (%)
  Never 23,425 (37) 16,829 (37) 6596 (38)
  Ever 34,174 (55) 24,941 (55) 9233 (53)
  Missing 4913 (8) 3368 (8) 1545 (9)
Age at menopause (years), mean (SD) 50.5 (3.7) 50.6 (3.7) 50.3 (3.9)
Age at menarche (years), N (%)
  < 13 28,078 (45) 20,054 (44) 8024 (46)
  ≥ 13 34,434 (55) 25,084 (56) 9350 (54)
Parity and age at first full-term pregnancy, N (%)
  Nulliparous 7282 (12) 5346 (12) 1936 (11)
  First child before age 30 years, one or two children 31,393 (50) 22,434 (50) 8959 (51)
  First child before age 30 years, three or more children 17,373 (28) 12,592 (28) 4781 (28)
  First child after age 30 years 6464 (10) 4766 (11) 1698 (10)
Lifetime oral contraceptive use, N (%) 38,570 (62) 27,719 (61) 10,851 (62)
Lifetime MHT use, N (%) 45,239 (72) 31,843 (71) 13,396 (77)
Number of medical consultations/visits during the preceding 6 months, N (%)
  0 3277 (5) 2865 (6) 412 (2)
  1 to 3 25,413 (41) 20,289 (45) 5124 (30)
  ≥ 4 33,491 (54) 21,667 (48) 11,824 (68)
  Missing 331 (1) 317 (1) 14 (0)
Self-report of a mammogram performed during the previous follow-up cycle, N (%) 51,097 (82) 36,800 (82) 14,297 (82)
Lifetime personal history of benign breast disease, N (%) 23,268 (37) 16,435 (36) 6833 (39)
History of breast cancer in first-degree relatives, N (%) 7139 (11) 5196 (12) 1943 (11)
Comorbidities, N (%)
Lifetime history of arthrosis 21,475 (34) 14,152 (31) 7323 (42)
Lifetime history of rheumatisms 6111 (10) 4504 (10) 1607 (9)
Lifetime history of arthritis 888 (1) 591 (1) 297 (2)
Lifetime history of polyarthritis 2375 (4) 1180 (3) 1195 (7)
Lifetime history of spondyloarthritis 236 (1) 123 (0) 113 (1)
Lifetime history of asthma 6043 (10) 3484 (8) 2559 (15)
Lifetime history of chronic bronchitis 7102 (11) 4278 (9) 2824 (16)
Lifetime history of hay fever 12,633 (20) 8629 (19) 4004 (23)
Lifetime history of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases 2284 (4) 1576 (3) 708 (4)
Recurrent use of other drugs2, N (%)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 38,493 (62) 14,238 (47) 24,255 (75)
Immunosuppressants 895 (1) 171 (0) 724 (4)
Paracetamol 38,392 (61) 24,725 (55) 13,667 (79)
Proton pump inhibitors 30,063 (48) 18,011 (40) 12,052 (69)
Anti-arthritics 26,400 (42) 17,095 (38) 9305 (54)
  1. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, MHT menopausal hormone therapy, Met-h metabolic equivalent task-hour, SD standard deviation
  2. 1Except for years of schooling, physical activity level, age at menarche, parity and age at first birth, lifetime use of oral contraceptives, history of breast cancer in first degree relatives and age at menopause which were assessed before the start of follow-up
  3. 2Recurrent use was defined as at least two reimbursements of the drug of interest during any previous 3-month period since January 1, 2004