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Table 2 Associations of glucocorticoid recurrent use with invasive breast cancer risk, according to the characteristics of use.

From: Use of systemic glucocorticoids and risk of breast cancer in a prospective cohort of postmenopausal women

Characteristics of exposure No. of cases HR1 (95% CI)
Route of administration2
 Oral 198 0.82 (0.70–0.95)
 Parenteral 130 0.90 (0.75–1.08)
Phomogeneity   0.40
Type of glucocorticoid3
 Betamethasone 56 0.88 (0.66–1.14)
 Prednisolone 128 0.90 (0.75–1.08)
 Prednisone 47 0.80 (0.59–1.07)
 Cortivazol 57 0.94 (0.72–1.23)
 Others4 10 0.47 (0.25–0.87)
Phomogeneity   0.98
Cumulative number of reimbursements
 Occasional/never use 2001 1.00 (ref)
 ≤ 5 179 0.88 (0.75–1.03)
 > 5 to ≤ 10 84 0.84 (0.67–1.05)
 > 10 to ≤ 15 18 0.68 (0.42–1.08)
 > 15 21 0.53 (0.34–0.81)
 Unknown 50 1.16 (0.87–1.53)
Ptrend5   0.02
Time since the first use (years)
 Occasional/never use 2001 1.00 (ref)
 ≤ 2 112 0.88 (0.73–1.07)
 > 2 to ≤ 4 76 0.77 (0.61–0.98)
 > 4 to ≤ 6 61 0.86 (0.66–1.11)
 > 6 69 0.92 (0.72–1.18)
 Unknown 34 0.86 (0.61–1.21)
Ptrend5   0.82
Time since the last use (years)
 Occasional/never use 2001 1.00 (ref)
 ≤ 1 255 0.84 (0.74–0.97)
 > 1 to ≤ 2 44 0.96 (0.71–1.29)
 > 2 to ≤ 3 25 0.94 (0.63–1.40)
 > 3 to ≤ 4 12 0.76 (0.43–1.35)
 > 4 16 0.78 (0.48–1.28)
Ptrend5   0.81
Age at first use (years)
 Occasional/never use 2001 1.00 (ref)
 ≤ 60 79 0.96 (0.76–1.22)
 > 60 to ≤ 70 161 0.81 (0.69–0.96)
 > 70 67 0.73 (0.57–0.95)
 Unknown 45 1.09 (0.81–1.47)
Ptrend5   0.29
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio
  2. 1HR adjusted for age (time scale), years of schooling (baseline), alcohol intake (time-varying), body mass index (time-varying), physical activity level (baseline), age at menarche (baseline), parity and age at first birth (baseline), lifetime use of oral contraceptives (baseline), age at menopause (baseline), history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (baseline), personal history of benign breast disease (time-varying), lifetime use of menopausal hormone therapy (time-varying), self-report of a mammogram performed during the previous follow-up cycle (time-varying), number of medical consultations/visits during the preceding 6 months (time-varying), and recurrent use of proton pump inhibitors (time-varying). Categories used are those displayed in Table 1. HRs were obtained from separate models including one characteristic of exposure at a time
  3. 2Variables corresponding to the recurrent use (versus never/occasional use) of oral/parenteral glucocorticoids were introduced simultaneously in the model. A woman who had taken oral and parenteral glucocorticoids would contribute to both categories
  4. 3Variables corresponding to the recurrent use (versus never/occasional use) of each type of glucocorticoid displayed in the table were introduced simultaneously in the model. A woman who had taken different types of glucocorticoids would contribute to several categories
  5. 4Other molecules include dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, triamcinolone, and hydrocortisone
  6. 5Tests for linear trends were performed among recurrently exposed women with known characteristics of exposure, using an ordinal variable across categories. The corresponding variable was introduced in the models as continuous