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Table 1 Characteristics and baseline parameters of the included studies

From: Association of statin use in older people primary prevention group with risk of cardiovascular events and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Study Year Country Design Follow-up (years) Population
Alpérovitch et al. [25] 2015 France Prospective cohort 9.1a Older people ≥ 65 years without a history of CVD
Bezin et al. [26] 2019 France Retrospective cohort 4.7b People ≥ 75 years with and without a history of CVD
Gitsels et al. [27] 2016 UK Retrospective cohort 16–24 People aged 60, 65, 70, and 75 years without a history of CVD stratified according to the QRISK2 score
Jun et al. [32] 2019 South Korea Nested case-control NA People who developed first time CV event or death ≥ 75 years and their matched controls
Kim et al. [28] 2019 South Korea Retrospective cohort 5.2b Patients > 75 years with at least one CV risk factor (HTN, DM, or overweight) and without a history of CVD
Lemaitre al [31]. 2002 USA Prospective cohort Up to 7.3 Older people ≥ 65 years without a history of CVD
Orkaby et al. [29] 2017 USA Prospective cohort 7b Male physicians ≥ 70 years without a history of CVD
Orkaby et al. [33] 2020 USA Retrospective cohort 6.8a US veterans ≥ 75 years without history of CVD
Ramos et al. [30] 2018 Spain Retrospective cohort 5.6b Older people ≥ 75 years without a history of CVD
Zhou et al. [34] 2020 Australia, USA Retrospective cohort 4.7b Older people from ASPREE trial ≥ 70 years without a history of CVD, dementia, and physical disability
Study Groups of interest Age, (years) Women BMI LDL-C HDL-C TG Family history of CVD Smoker Alcoholic DM HTN Renal disease
EX Current Ex Current
Alpérovitch et al. [25] Statin prevalent users (n = 1007) 73.1 (4.6) 67.8 25.8 (4.0) 3.40 (0.9) 1.64 (0.4) 1.27 (0.84–1.93)c NR 30.2 4.4 1.1 81.8 10.9 79.7 NR
No LLT (n = 5436) 74.1 (5.6) 62 25.4 (4.0) 3.78 (0.9) 1.63 (0.4) 1.14 (0.76–1.70)c NR 31.3 6.3 2.8 79.7 7.2 74.5 NR
Bezin et al. [26] Primary prevention without modifiable risk factors (n = 752) 78 (76–81)c 71.8 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 0 0d NR
Gitsels et al. [27] QRISK2 < 10% Statin prevalent users (n = 883) 65 100 26 (4) NR NR NR 0 10 0 NR NR 0 5 0
No LLT (n = 39,866) 65 100 26 (4) NR NR NR 0 10 3 NR NR 0 1 0
Statin prevalent users (n = 3) 70 100 28 (6) NR NR NR 0 0 0 NR NR 0 0 0
No LLT (n = 322) 70 100 25 (4) NR NR NR 0 4 3 NR NR 0 0 0
QRISK2 = 10–19% Statin prevalent users (n = 6438) 65 68 28 (5) NR NR NR 1 24 10 NR NR 7 56 0
No LLT (n = 116,240) 65 47 26 (4) NR NR NR 0 21 20 NR NR 1 24 0
Statin prevalent users (n = 10,822) 70 92 27 (5) NR NR NR 1 20 1 NR NR 0 55 2
No LLT (n = 108,703) 70 86 26 (5) NR NR NR 0 17 5 NR NR 0 21 0
Statin prevalent users (n = 661) 75 100 26 (4) NR NR NR 0 5 0 NR NR 0 2 0
No LLT (n = 13,685) 75 100 25 (4) NR NR NR 0 5 1 NR NR 0 0 0
QRISK2 ≥ 20% Statin prevalent users (n = 5259) 65 33 29 (5) NR NR NR 1 32 32 NR NR 59 77 0
No LLT (n = 29,170) 65 16 27 (5) NR NR NR 1 19 57 NR NR 22 49 0
Statin prevalent users (n = 25,559) 70 37 29 (5) NR NR NR 2 38 18 NR NR 39 73 12
No LLT (n = 98,900) 70 24 26 (4) NR NR NR 1 28 31 NR NR 8 37 2
Statin prevalent users (n = 34,743) 75 56 28 (5) NR NR NR 1 34 10 NR NR 29 74 15
No LLT (n = 142,521) 75 55 26 (4) NR NR NR 0 25 16 NR NR 5 39 2
Jun et al. [32] Cases (n = 11,017) 83.7 (3.2) 63.2 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 14.7 44.2 NR
Controls (n = 55,085) 83.7 (3.2) 63.2 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 11.5 49.9 NR
Kim et al. [28] Statin new users (n = 639) 78 (76–80)c 64.6 23.4 (22.2–25.8)c 107 (85–133)c 45 (39–54)c 110 (82–150)c NR NR NR NR NR 32.6 95.6 3.1
No statin (n = 639) 78 (76-80)c 61.3 23.3 (22–25.6)c 107 (85–129)c 46 (38–55)c 107 (79–151)c NR NR NR NR NR 30.8 95.9 3.1
Lemaitre al [31]. Treated prevalent users (n = 251) 71.1 (4.6) 68.5 26.9 (4.4) 142.7 (42.2) 53.6 (15.8) 154.2 (87.1) 35.3 NR 9.6 NR 49.4 21.9 48.2 NR
Untreated Drug Recommended (n = 717) 72.7 (5.6) 66.7 27.4 (4.5) 177.2 (28.8) 50.9 (12.1) 153.1 (56.5) 42.5 NR 14.6 NR 45.3 20.5 48.1 NR
Diet Recommended (n = 946) 72.5 (5.3) 63.4 27.2 (5) 147.5 (21) 53.0 (13.7) 141.4 (57) 36.4 NR 13.9 NR 48.9 20 43.7 NR
Orkaby et al. [29] Statin prevalent users (n = 1130) 76 (4.5) 0 25.6 (3.1) NR NR NR NR 48.9 2.9 NR NR 13 73.8 10.8
No statin (n = 1130) 76 (4.6) 0 25.6 (3.2) NR NR NR NR 50.5 3.3 NR NR 13.1 75.3 10.6
Orkaby et al. [33] Statin new users (n = 57,178) 81.2 (3.6) 2.7 27.5 (4.3) NR NR NR NR 63.5 7.4 NR NR 27 80.4 2.3
No statin (n = 326,981) 80.7 (4.0) 2.7 26.7 (4.4) NR NR NR NR 71.9 7.3 NR NR 13.1 66.2 1.1
Ramos et al. [30] No T2DM, 75–84 years. Statin new users (n = 4802) 78.8 (2.7) 65.1 28.6 (4.6) 3.9 (1.0) 1.5 (0.4) 1.4 (0.7) NR NR 13.5 NR NR 0 65.7 NR
No statin (n = 27,114) 79.1 (2.8) 62.8 28.4 (4.6) 3.3 (0.7) 1.5 (0.4) 1.2 (0.5) NR NR 12.4 NR NR 0 57.3 NR
No T2DM, ≥ 85 years. Statin new users (n = 743) 88.5 (3.2) 69.8 27.1 (4.3) 3.7 (1.0) 1.5 (0.4) 1.4 (0.6) NR NR 7.8 NR NR 0 66.8 NR
No statin (n = 6325) 88.6 (3.2) 69.8 27.6 (4.5) 3.1 (0.8) 1.6 (0.4) 1.2 (0.5) NR NR 6.7 NR NR 0 58.7 NR
T2DM, 75–84 years Statin new users (n = 1756) 78.8 (2.6) 61.3 29.7 (4.7) 3.7 (0.9) 1.4 (0.4) 1.7 (0.8) NR NR 15.4 NR NR 100 78.4 NR
No statin (n = 4885) 79.2 (2.8) 58 29.4 (4.8) 3 (0.7) 1.4 (0.4) 1.4 (0.7) NR NR 14.7 NR NR 100 75.1 NR
T2DM, ≥ 85 years Statin new users (n = 201) 88.2 (2.8) 67.2 28.2 (4.3) 3.3 (1.0) 1.4 (0.3) 1.6 (0.9) NR NR 6.5 NR NR 100 82.6 NR
No statin (n = 1038) 88.2 (2.7) 68 27.5 (4.4) 3 (0.7) 1.4 (0.4) 1.4 (0.7) NR NR 8.2 NR NR 100 75.8 NR
Zhou et al. [34] Statin prevalent users (n = 5629) 74.2 (71.8–77.7)c 60.6 NR NR NR NR 65.1 41.6 3.8 NR 75.6 19.6 82.4 29.9
No statin (n = 12,467) 74.2 (71.8–77.9)c 54.0 NR NR NR NR 59.3 40.6 3.4 NR 78.3 6.1 70.8 24.0
  1. Continuous data are presented as mean (standard deviation)
  2. Dichotomous data are presented as percentage
  3. Abbreviations: CVD cardiovascular disease, HTN hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglycerides, LLT lipid-lowering treatment, NR not reported, ASPREE Aspirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly
  4. aData are presented as mean
  5. bData are presented as median
  6. cData are presented as median (interquartile range)
  7. dParticipants on antihypertensive drugs