Skip to main content

Table 1 Total adherence to international dietary recommendations by the World Health Organization (WHO) (n = 115,051)

From: Adherence to international dietary recommendations in association with all-cause mortality and fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease risk: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participants

   % meeting recommendations (WHO)
  Total n = 115,051 Zero
n = 36,514
One
n = 44,989
Two
n = 23,835
Three/four
n = 9713
Dietary recommendations   29.7 38.5 22.3 9.5
 % Meeting saturated fat 28.4 0 25.5 55.2 83.1
 % Meeting fibre 10.9 0 5.5 18.8 57.4
 % Meeting free sugars 41.9 0 50.4 71.2 87.7
 % Meeting fruit and vegetables 26.1 0 18.6 54.8 88.8
Sociodemographic characteristics
Age, mean (SD) 55.8 (7.8) 55.4 (8.0) 55.7 (7.8) 56.3 (7.6) 56.7 (7.5)
Sex (%)      
  Female 57.0 27.3 38.3 23.8 10.5
  Male 43.0 32.9 38.7 20.2 8.2
Ethnicity (%)
  Whites 96.6 29.9 38.6 22.1 9.4
  Others 3.4 24.3 36.5 26.9 12.4
Region (%)
  Scotland 5.3 31.8 39.6 20.5 8.1
  Wales 3.1 29.5 37.5 22.6 10.4
  England 91.6 29.6 38.5 22.3 9.6
Townsend index (quintiles)
  Q1 20.1 30.3 38.7 21.9 9.2
  Q3 20.2 30.2 38.3 22.1 9.4
  Q5 19.0 28.5 38.5 22.7 10.3
Education group (%)
  Vocational qualification (NVQ, HND, or HNC) 12.4 31.5 38.7 21.2 8.7
  Any school degree (A-level, AS-level, O-level, GCSE, CSE) 29.3 30.8 38.9 21.5 8.8
  Higher degree (college, university or professional degree/qualification) 52.2 28.8 38.3 22.9 10.0
  None of the above 5.8 29.1 38.0 22.5 10.4
Behavioural risk factors
Alcohol (%)
  Occasional (< 1 unit/week) 2.4 34.4 34.5 20.4 10.7
  Moderate (1–14 units/week) 34.7 31.0 37.5 21.9 9.6
  Heavy (> 14 units/week) 45.1 27.5 40.7 23.0 8.8
  None 2.4 33.8 34.5 20.7 11.0
Smoking status (%)
  Never 58.0 30.8 38.2 21.8 9.2
  Previous 35.1 26.9 38.5 23.9 10.7
  Current 6.8 35.2 40.9 17.8 6.0
Physical activity (MET hours/week), mean (SD) 41.0 (50.3) 37.2 (48.2) 39.8 (49.3) 44.3 (50.8) 50.7 (57.1)
Total energy intake (kcal/day), mean (SD) 2070 (510) 2129 (473) 2051 (500) 2012 (541) 2092 (562)
Medical conditions
Body mass index group (%)
  Healthy weight (18.5 to < 24.9 kg/m2) 40.4 29.6 37.9 22.1 10.4
  Overweight (25 to < 29.9 kg/m2) 40.8 30.1 38.7 22.2 8.9
  Obesity I (30–34.9 kg/m2) 13.8 29.3 39.2 22.9 8.7
  Obesity II (≥ 35 kg/m2) 4.9 29.0 39.5 22.3 8.9
Hypertension (%)
  Yes 47.2 28.9 38.6 22.7 9.8
Diabetes (%)
  Yes 3.8 20.5 37.8 28.4 13.4
High cholesterol (%)
  Yes 82.3 29.9 38.7 22.2 9.3