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Table 3 Adjusted hazards ratios and 95% confidence intervals for ischemic stroke risk and hemorrhagic risk according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol clinical cutoffs and quartiles in Kailuan I study participants with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations < 70 mg/dL

From: The risk of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in Chinese adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations < 70 mg/dL

  Ischemic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke
HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
 LDL-C, mmol/L ≤40 40–55 55–70 ≤40 40–55 55–70
 Number 982 2374 5971 982 2374 5971
 Case/person-years 90/8034 110/21,570 188/56,249 42/8341 34/21,846 69/56,725
 Mean LDL-C ± SD, mg/dL 26.7 ± 10.3 49.1 ± 4.05 63.0 ± 4.10 26.7 ± 10.3 49.1 ± 4.05 63.0 ± 4.10
 Multivariate modela 2.07 (1.53, 2.80) 1.43 (1.11, 1.84) 1.00 (reference) 2.70 (1.70, 4.30) 1.16 (0.74, 1.80) 1.00 (reference)
 Excluding eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 2.21 (1.60, 3.07) 1.53 (1.17, 2.00) 1.00 (reference) 2.65 (1.63, 4.30) 1.13 (0.72, 1.77) 1.00 (reference)
 Excluding Framingham risk score > 30% 2.37 (1.57, 3.58) 1.48 (1.04, 2.10) 1.00 (reference) 2.60 (1.39, 4.86) 1.00 (0.53, 1.88) 1.00 (reference)
 Excluding BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 2.09 (1.54, 2.84) 1.45 (1.13, 1.87) 1.00 (reference) 2.69 (1.68, 4.31) 1.19 (0.76, 1.85) 1.00 (reference)
 Excluding blood pressure-lowering drugs 2.01 (1.41, 2.88) 1.40 (1.03, 1.91) 1.00 (reference) 2.56 (1.49, 4.40) 0.92 (0.53, 1.62) 1.00 (reference)
 Excluding glucose-lowering drugs 2.02 (1.48, 2.76) 1.45 (1.12, 1.88) 1.00 (reference) 2.70 (1.68, 4.33) 1.08 (0.69, 1.71) 1.00 (reference)
Quartiles of LDL-C Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Ptrendb Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Ptrend
 Number 2343 2333 2327 2324   2343 2333 2327 2324  
 Case/person-years 153/20,356 108/21,562 72/21,893 55/22,040   60/20,800 40/21,824 23/22,088 22/22,199  
Mean LDL-C ± SD, mg/dL 38.1 ± 12.0 55.3 ± 2.43 62.1 ± 1.59 67.2 ± 1.38   38.1 ± 12.0 55.3 ± 2.43 62.1 ± 1.59 67.2 ± 1.38  
Multivariate modela 2.39 (1.69, 3.39) 2.40 (1.69, 3.41) 1.48 (1.02, 2.16) 1.00 (reference) < 0.001 2.14 (1.24, 3.69) 1.89 (1.08, 3.31) 1.13 (0.61, 2.11) 1.00 (reference) 0.002
Excluding eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 2.76 (1.89, 4.03) 2.68 (1.84, 3.92) 1.61 (1.07, 2.42) 1.00 (reference) < 0.001 2.11 (1.20, 3.72) 1.87 (1.05, 3.32) 1.20 (0.64, 2.25) 1.00 (reference) 0.004
Excluding Framingham risk score > 30% 2.67 (1.63, 4.40) 2.62 (1.59, 4.30) 1.58 (0.93, 2.69) 1.00 (reference) < 0.001 2.34 (1.07, 5.13) 1.99 (0.89, 4.46) 1.53 (0.66, 3.55) 1.00 (reference) 0.032
Excluding BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 2.40 (1.70, 3.41) 2.41 (1.70, 3.42) 1.47 (1.01, 2.15) 1.00 (reference) < 0.001 2.13 (1.23, 3.68) 1.92 (1.10, 3.37) 1.09 (0.58, 2.05) 1.00 (reference) 0.002
Excluding blood pressure-lowering drugs 2.38 (1.56, 3.63) 2.32 (1.51, 3.55) 1.53 (0.97, 2.41) 1.00 (reference) < 0.001 2.01 (1.04, 3.87) 1.68 (0.85, 3.33) 1.05 (0.49, 2.23) 1.00 (reference) 0.013
Excluding glucose-lowering drugs 2.37 (1.65, 3.39) 2.36 (1.64, 3.38) 1.39 (0.94, 2.05) 1.00 (reference) < 0.001 2.15 (1.23, 3.75) 1.79 (1.00, 3.19) 1.18 (0.63, 2.21) 1.00 (reference) 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SD, standard deviation; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; BMI, body mass index
  2. aAll models were adjusted for sex (men or women), age (year), physical activity (inactive, moderately active, or vigorously active), smoking and drinking status (never, former, occasional or daily), blood pressure status during follow-up (well-controlled or poorly controlled), blood glucose status during follow-up (well-controlled or poorly controlled), body mass index (kg/m2), urine protein (negative, trace, +, ++, or +++), heart rate (bpm), triglyceride (mg/dL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL), estimated glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (mg/L)
  3. bTest for trend according to the variable containing the median value of each quartile