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Table 1 Summary of survey data. Country-level survey estimates of the prevalence of each condition and the percentage of children reporting N conditions. Here, ranges show 95% binomial confidence intervals (95% CIs)

From: Health inequities and clustering of fever, acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea and wasting in children under five in low- and middle-income countries: a Demographic and Health Surveys analysis

Country N Prevalence (%, 95% CIs) N conditions (%, 95% CIs)
Fever ARI Diarrhoea Wasting 1 2 3 4
Angola 5150 16.6 (15.2, 17.9) 3.4 (2.8, 4.1) 17.0 (15.5, 18.4) 5.2 (4.4, 6.0) 21.9 (20.3, 23.4) 8.0 (7.0, 8.9) 1.4 (0.9, 1.8) 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
Bangladesh 5900 37.7 (36.1, 39.4) 5.3 (4.5, 6.1) 5.6 (4.7, 6.6) 14.0 (12.9, 15.2) 36.3 (34.7, 38.0) 10.7 (9.6, 11.8) 1.5 (1.2, 1.9) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Benin 10,099 20.1 (19.3, 20.9) 2.9 (2.5, 3.2) 10.9 (10.2, 11.5) 4.8 (4.3, 5.2) 22.4 (21.5, 23.2) 6.2 (5.7, 6.7) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Burkina Faso 5401 22.3 (21.1, 23.5) 1.9 (1.5, 2.3) 16.2 (15.1, 17.2) 14.8 (13.8, 15.8) 26.7 (25.5, 28.0) 10.6 (9.7, 11.5) 2.2 (1.8, 2.6) 0.1 (0.0, 0.3)
Burundi 5316 43.1 (41.7, 44.6) 7.3 (6.6, 8.1) 23.9 (22.7, 25.2) 5.2 (4.5, 5.8) 35.6 (34.1, 37.0) 16.3 (15.2, 17.4) 3.5 (2.9, 4.0) 0.2 (0.1, 0.4)
Cambodia 3850 29.9 (28.1, 31.8) 6.2 (5.3, 7.2) 13.4 (12.0, 14.8) 9.3 (8.2, 10.5) 27.2 (25.4, 29.0) 11.3 (10.0, 12.6) 2.8 (2.1, 3.5) 0.2 (0.0, 0.4)
Cameroon 3672 17.9 (16.5, 19.4) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 12.9 (11.6, 14.2) 4.0 (3.3, 4.8) 22.9 (21.3, 24.5) 5.7 (4.8, 6.6) 0.5 (0.3, 0.8) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
Chad 8460 24.0 (22.9, 25.2) 7.9 (7.2, 8.7) 23.2 (22.0, 24.4) 13.0 (12.1, 13.8) 25.5 (24.3, 26.6) 13.4 (12.4, 14.4) 4.6 (4.0, 5.2) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)
Comoros 1869 21.4 (19.1, 23.7) 2.7 (1.9, 3.6) 17.6 (15.5, 19.8) 10.3 (8.7, 11.9) 27.9 (25.4, 30.4) 9.2 (7.6, 10.8) 1.9 (1.1, 2.6) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Cote d’Ivoire 2550 29.8 (27.4, 32.1) 3.9 (3.0, 4.9) 20.9 (18.9, 22.9) 7.1 (5.8, 8.4) 25.6 (23.4, 27.7) 13.7 (11.9, 15.5) 2.7 (1.9, 3.6) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
DRC 6209 31.9 (30.3, 33.5) 6.6 (5.8, 7.5) 18.6 (17.3, 20.0) 7.5 (6.6, 8.4) 32.0 (30.4, 33.6) 12.7 (11.6, 13.9) 2.3 (1.8, 2.7) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Egypt 11,706 27.0 (26.0, 27.9) 14.2 (13.5, 15.0) 14.0 (13.3, 14.8) 8.0 (7.5, 8.6) 25.0 (24.0, 25.9) 13.3 (12.5, 14.0) 3.7 (3.3, 4.1) 0.2 (0.1, 0.3)
Ethiopia 7523 15.0 (13.8, 16.1) 6.8 (6.0, 7.6) 12.5 (11.4, 13.6) 9.2 (8.2, 10.2) 21.3 (20.0, 22.7) 6.7 (5.9, 7.5) 2.5 (2.0, 3.1) 0.3 (0.1, 0.4)
Gabon 2569 26.3 (23.5, 29.1) 9.3 (7.4, 11.2) 17.9 (15.5, 20.3) 3.4 (2.3, 4.4) 30.1 (27.2, 33.1) 10.3 (8.4, 12.3) 2.0 (1.0, 2.9) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
Ghana 2324 15.2 (13.5, 16.9) 3.7 (2.7, 4.7) 12.4 (10.8, 13.9) 4.6 (3.4, 5.8) 22.4 (20.3, 24.5) 5.3 (4.3, 6.3) 0.9 (0.5, 1.3) 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
Guinea 2933 16.4 (15.0, 17.9) 2.1 (1.5, 2.7) 12.5 (11.2, 13.8) 8.5 (7.4, 9.6) 25.1 (23.4, 26.8) 6.0 (5.0, 6.9) 0.8 (0.4, 1.2) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
Haiti 4858 34.8 (33.2, 36.4) 10.9 (9.8, 11.9) 22.1 (20.7, 23.5) 3.2 (2.7, 3.8) 35.0 (33.4, 36.6) 14.0 (12.8, 15.2) 2.6 (2.1, 3.1) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
India 187,195 13.3 (13.1, 13.6) 2.8 (2.7, 2.9) 9.2 (9.0, 9.3) 20.1 (19.8, 20.3) 27.3 (27.0, 27.6) 6.5 (6.3, 6.6) 1.5 (1.4, 1.6) 0.2 (0.1, 0.2)
Kenya 16,508 26.1 (25.3, 27.0) 9.2 (8.6, 9.8) 16.1 (15.3, 16.8) 4.1 (3.7, 4.5) 27.4 (26.5, 28.3) 10.8 (10.2, 11.4) 2.0 (1.7, 2.3) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2)
Lesotho 1083 17.1 (14.3, 19.9) 5.4 (3.8, 7.0) 12.9 (10.5, 15.3) 3.0 (1.9, 4.1) 19.6 (16.7, 22.6) 7.9 (6.0, 9.8) 0.7 (0.2, 1.1) 0.2 (0.0, 0.6)
Liberia 2774 31.2 (28.8, 33.6) 7.0 (5.7, 8.3) 24.3 (22.0, 26.5) 6.6 (5.2, 7.9) 30.2 (27.8, 32.6) 14.4 (12.6, 16.3) 2.8 (2.0, 3.5) 0.4 (0.2, 0.7)
Malawi 4607 31.6 (29.9, 33.2) 5.8 (5.0, 6.7) 22.6 (21.0, 24.1) 2.6 (2.1, 3.2) 30.7 (29.1, 32.4) 12.6 (11.4, 13.8) 2.1 (1.6, 2.6) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Mali 6906 17.1 (16.1, 18.0) 2.2 (1.8, 2.6) 18.7 (17.6, 19.7) 8.6 (7.9, 9.4) 24.0 (22.9, 25.1) 8.1 (7.4, 8.8) 1.9 (1.6, 2.3) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Mozambique 7846 14.3 (13.3, 15.2) 1.6 (1.3, 1.9) 11.8 (10.9, 12.7) 5.2 (4.6, 5.8) 19.7 (18.6, 20.8) 5.2 (4.6, 5.8) 0.8 (0.6, 1.1) 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
Myanmar 3541 16.2 (14.8, 17.7) 3.1 (2.5, 3.7) 10.9 (9.7, 12.2) 6.5 (5.5, 7.5) 20.7 (19.1, 22.3) 6.3 (5.4, 7.3) 1.0 (0.7, 1.4) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Namibia 1460 29.5 (26.8, 32.2) 6.5 (5.0, 8.0) 23.3 (20.8, 25.8) 7.6 (6.1, 9.1) 26.7 (24.2, 29.3) 15.0 (12.9, 17.2) 2.7 (1.8, 3.6) 0.5 (0.0, 1.0)
Nepal 2003 21.9 (19.9, 24.0) 2.9 (2.1, 3.7) 7.2 (5.9, 8.6) 8.9 (7.6, 10.3) 24.2 (22.0, 26.3) 6.6 (5.4, 7.8) 1.2 (0.7, 1.7) 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
Nigeria 9088 27.4 (26.3, 28.4) 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) 13.8 (13.0, 14.6) 6.8 (6.2, 7.4) 26.7 (25.6, 27.7) 9.1 (8.4, 9.8) 1.8 (1.5, 2.1) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2)
Pakistan 3509 40.0 (37.5, 42.4) 14.0 (12.3, 15.8) 21.1 (19.0, 23.1) 6.3 (5.1, 7.4) 29.6 (27.3, 31.8) 18.0 (16.0, 20.0) 4.8 (3.7, 6.0) 0.3 (0.1, 0.5)
Rwanda 3160 20.6 (19.1, 22.1) 6.6 (5.7, 7.5) 13.5 (12.3, 14.8) 1.9 (1.4, 2.4) 20.2 (18.7, 21.7) 8.3 (7.3, 9.3) 1.9 (1.4, 2.4) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Senegal 5083 13.7 (12.5, 14.9) 3.8 (3.0, 4.5) 15.6 (14.3, 16.8) 7.7 (6.8, 8.7) 18.9 (17.5, 20.3) 7.9 (6.9, 8.8) 1.7 (1.3, 2.0) 0.3 (0.1, 0.5)
Sierra Leone 3559 28.6 (26.9, 30.4) 5.1 (4.3, 5.9) 12.1 (10.9, 13.3) 9.5 (8.3, 10.6) 27.6 (25.9, 29.3) 10.2 (9.1, 11.4) 2.1 (1.6, 2.7) 0.2 (0.0, 0.4)
South Africa 928 22.0 (18.5, 25.4) 4.3 (2.5, 6.0) 12.3 (9.5, 15.0) 2.4 (1.1, 3.7) 26.5 (22.8, 30.1) 6.1 (4.0, 8.3) 0.7 (0.1, 1.4) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
Tanzania 7566 19.8 (18.7, 20.9) 3.9 (3.3, 4.4) 13.1 (12.1, 14.0) 4.3 (3.7, 4.9) 22.0 (20.9, 23.1) 7.6 (6.9, 8.4) 1.3 (1.0, 1.6) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
Timor-Leste 5199 13.4 (12.3, 14.5) 2.1 (1.6, 2.5) 10.6 (9.6, 11.6) 24.4 (23.0, 25.8) 29.3 (27.9, 30.8) 7.1 (6.2, 7.9) 2.2 (1.7, 2.7) 0.1 (0.0, 0.2)
Togo 2796 24.5 (22.7, 26.3) 3.4 (2.7, 4.1) 17.1 (15.5, 18.6) 6.8 (5.8, 7.8) 27.5 (25.6, 29.3) 9.6 (8.4, 10.9) 1.5 (1.0, 1.9) 0.2 (0.0, 0.3)
Uganda 3687 39.4 (37.6, 41.3) 10.8 (9.6, 12.0) 22.5 (21.0, 24.1) 3.3 (2.6, 3.9) 32.3 (30.5, 34.0) 15.3 (13.9, 16.6) 4.1 (3.4, 4.8) 0.2 (0.0, 0.4)
Zambia 7247 17.2 (16.1, 18.2) 1.8 (1.4, 2.1) 16.4 (15.4, 17.5) 4.1 (3.6, 4.7) 22.6 (21.4, 23.8) 7.0 (6.3, 7.6) 1.0 (0.7, 1.2) 0.0 (0.0, 0.1)
Zimbabwe 4223 14.4 (13.2, 15.6) 4.0 (3.4, 4.7) 18.4 (17.1, 19.8) 3.4 (2.8, 4.0) 25.4 (23.9, 26.9) 6.5 (5.7, 7.4) 0.6 (0.4, 0.9) 0.0 (0.0, 0.0)
Total 380,357 18.8 (18.6, 18.9) 4.3 (4.2, 4.4) 12.5 (12.4, 12.7) 13.5 (13.3, 13.6) 26.6 (26.5, 26.8) 8.2 (8.1, 8.3) 1.8 (1.8, 1.9) 0.2 (0.1, 0.2)