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Table 2 Pleiotropy and heterogeneity analyses for the association between exposures and Alzheimer's disease in primary analysis

From: Investigating causal relationships between exposome and human longevity: a Mendelian randomization analysis

Exposome components MR-Egger intercept P-value Q test P-value MR-PRESSO global test P-value Corrected MR-PRESSO
OR (95%CI) P-value
Disease
 Atrial fibrillation and flutter 0.87 0.82 0.89 - -
 Coronary atherosclerosis 0.11 0.08 0.16 - -
 Cardiac arrhythmias, COPD co-morbidities 0.81 0.33 0.80 - -
 Ischemic heart disease 1.66 × 10−37 0.46 < 0.001 0.74 (0.47, 1.15) 7.70 × 10−06
 Angina (self-reported) 0.46 0.12 0.52 - -
 Angina (diagnosed) 0.54 0.07 0.55 - -
 Hypertension (self-reported) 1.11 × 10−04 0.32 < 0.001 - -
 Hypertension (diagnosed) 5.55 × 10−05 0.73 < 0.001 - -
 Diseases of the circulatory system 0.49 0.11 0.56 - -
 High cholesterol (self-reported) 1.92 × 10−07 0.32 < 0.001 0.79 (0.62, 1.01) 5.16 × 10−05
 Diabetes (self-reported) 0.28 0.36 0.29 - -
 Diabetes (diagnosed) 0.24 0.07 0.25 - -
 Malignant neoplasm of prostate 0.35 0.29 0.35 - -
 Venous thromboembolism 0.19 0.35 0.31 - -
 DVT of lower extremities 0.48 0.34 0.53 - -
 DVT of lower extremities and pulmonary embolism 0.26 0.38 0.35 - -
 No vascular/heart problems 2.01 × 10−04 0.34 0.001 1.53 (1.45, 1.62) 1.43 × 10−15
Physical measures
 Systolic blood pressure 2.16 × 10−08 0.72 < 0.001 0.54 (0.44, 0.66) 3.10 × 10−08
 Diastolic blood pressure 1.06 × 10−04 0.39 < 0.001 0.55 (0.45, 0.67) 1.39 × 10−08
 Arm fat mass (right) 0.09 0.17 0.09 - -
 Arm fat percentage (left) 0.002 0.61 0.002 0.65 (0.53, 0.8) 4.99 × 10−05
 Arm fat percentage (right) 0.005 0.87 0.005 0.64 (0.52, 0.78) 1.42 × 10−05
 Leg fat mass (right) 0.11 0.14 0.13 - -
 Leg fat mass (left) 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.67 (0.57, 0.8) 8.71 × 10−06
 Leg fat percentage (right) 2.94 × 10−28 0.64 < 0.001 0.51 (0.4, 0.65) 8.76 ×10−08
 Leg fat percentage (left) 4.36 × 10−23 0.48 < 0.001 0.53 (0.43, 0.67) 1.15 × 10−07
 Trunk fat mass 0.01 0.51 0.02 0.78 (0.68, 0.9) 4.58 × 10−04
 Whole body fat mass 0.10 0.22 0.11 - -
 Waist circumference 2.90 × 10−05 0.99 < 0.001 0.7 (0.58, 0.84) 1.83 × 10−04
 Body mass index: by impedance measurement 3.11 × 10−09 0.60 < 0.001 0.69 (0.6, 0.79) 8.48 × 10−08
 Body mass index: by height and weight measurement 6.25 × 10−08 0.60 < 0.001 0.72 (0.63, 0.82) 1.06 × 10−06
Family history
 Father with AD/dementia 0.41 0.89 - - -
 Mather with AD/dementia 0.18 0.15 0.40 - -
 Father with heart disease 0.006 0.24 0.01 0.5 (0.35, 0.72) 2.47 × 10−04
 Siblings with heart disease 0.25 0.85 - - -
 Siblings with high blood pressure 0.02 0.64 0.02 0.65 (0.3, 1.41) 0.016
 Siblings with none of group 1 disease* 0.18 0.31 0.30 - -
Medication
 Aspirin 0.46 0.24 0.59 - -
 Atorvastatin 2.15 × 10−33 0.36 < 0.001 0.72 (0.41, 1.26) 8.30 × 10−07
 Amlodipine 0.04 0.72 0.05 - -
 Metformin 0.70 0.48 0.70 - -
 Simvastatin 3.75 × 10−07 0.67 < 0.001 0.63 (0.42, 0.93) 1.19 × 10−05
 Bendroflumethiazide 0.18 0.11 0.21 - -
 Blood pressure medication (females) 0.02 0.50 0.03 - -
 Blood pressure medication (males) 0.04 0.86 0.04 - -
 Cholesterol lowering medication (females) 1.55 × 10−06 0.87 < 0.001 0.71 (0.56, 0.91) 9.32 × 10−06
 Cholesterol lowering medication (males) 1.70 × 10−05 0.66 < 0.001 0.71 (0.62, 0.82) 3.07 × 10−06
 None of medication taken (females) 0.010 0.70 0.01 1.62 (1.31, 2) 3.05 × 10−05
 None of medication taken (males) 0.002 0.80 0.002 1.61 (1.43, 1.81) 4.23 × 10−08
Early life factors
 Comparative height size at age 10 0.004 0.62 0.006 0.78 (0.66, 0.93) 0.006
Education
 College or university degree 2.17 × 10−04 0.84 < 0.001 1.2 (1.07, 1.35) 2.03 × 10−04
Lifestyle
 Age first had sexual intercourse 0.18 1.00 0.19 - -
Diet
 Never eat sugar or foods/drinks containing sugar 0.54 0.22 0.58 - -
  1. *Group 1: heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, chronic bronchitis/emphysema, Alzheimer's disease/dementia, and diabetes
  2. AD Alzheimer’s disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, CI confidence interval, DVT deep venous thrombosis, MR-PRESSO Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier, IVW inverse variance weighted method, OR odds ratio