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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at baseline

From: Association of alcohol consumption with morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease: original data and meta-analysis of 48,423 men and women

  HSE/SHeSs UK Biobank
Never drinker Former drinker Low-level drinker Medium-level drinker High-level drinker Overall Never drinker Former drinker Low-level drinker Medium-level drinker High-level drinker Overall
N 263 (9.4) 383 (13.7) 1630 (58.2) 458 (16.3) 68 (2.4) 2802 (100.0) 1076 (7.5) 1207 (8.4) 5989 (41.6) 5222 (36.3) 892 (6.2) 14386 (100.0)
Age, mean (SD), y 69.0 (11.0) 67.1 (11.1) 68.2 (10.1) 64.2 (10.9) 60.4 (10.7) 67.3 (10.6) 61.6 (6.6) 61.1 (6.5) 61.9 (6.1) 61.6 (6.0) 60.5 (6.4) 61.6 (6.2)
Alcohol intake, mean (SD), g/day 0.0 0.0 4.0 (4.3) 28.0 (10.2) 85.1 (33.0) 9.0 (16.9) 0.0 0.0 7.9 (5.1) 30.6 (10.6) 76.7 (26.4) 19.2 (21.4)
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 28.5 (5.5) 28.6 (5.7) 27.9 (4.6) 27.9 (4.1) 28.0 (4.2) 28.1 (4.8) 30.0 (5.8) 30.2 (6.0) 29.1 (5.0) 28.8 (4.3) 29.0 (4.7) 29.2 (4.9)
Female 187 (71.1) 189 (49.3) 758 (46.5) 65 (14.2) 5 (7.4) 1204 (43.0) 619 (57.5) 447 (37.0) 2242 (37.4) 743 (14.2) 174 (19.5) 4225 (29.4)
Smoking status
 Never 157 (59.7) 89 (23.2) 527 (32.3) 78 (17.0) 10 (14.7) 861 (30.7) 704 (65.4) 350 (29.0) 2616 (43.7) 1512 (29.0) 178 (20.0) 5360 (37.3)
 Ex-smoker 66 (25.1) 191 (49.9) 799 (49.0) 272 (59.4) 29 (42.6) 1357 (48.4) 252 (23.4) 638 (52.9) 2799 (46.7) 3045 (58.3) 507 (56.8) 7241 (50.3)
 Current smoker 40 (15.2) 103 (26.9) 304 (18.7) 108 (23.6) 29 (42.6) 584 (20.8) 120 (11.2) 219 (18.1) 574 (9.6) 665 (12.7) 207 (23.2) 1785 (12.4)
History of diabetes 40 (15.2) 74 (19.3) 169 (10.4) 43 (9.4) 2 (2.9) 328 (11.7) 280 (26.0) 346 (28.7) 1026 (17.1) 676 (12.9) 117 (13.1) 2445 (17.0)
History of hypertension 50 (19.0) 60 (15.7) 224 (13.7) 54 (11.8) 6 (8.8) 394 (14.1) 637 (59.2) 764 (63.3) 3193 (53.3) 2940 (56.3) 536 (60.1) 8070 (56.1)
Socioeconomic positiona
 Low 106 (40.3) 186 (48.6) 764 (46.9) 230 (50.2) 26 (38.2) 1312 (46.8) NA NA NA NA NA NA
 Intermediate 104 (39.5) 138 (36.0) 494 (30.3) 83 (18.1) 24 (35.3) 843 (30.1) NA NA NA NA NA NA
 High 53 (20.2) 59 (15.4) 372 (22.8) 145 (31.7) 18 (26.5) 647 (23.1) NA NA NA NA NA NA
Highest educational qualificationb
 None NA NA NA NA NA NA 432 (40.1) 564 (46.7) 1910 (31.9) 1510 (28.9) 247 (27.7) 4663 (32.4)
 O levels or equivalent NA NA NA NA NA NA 141 (13.1) 150 (12.4) 900 (15.0) 742 (14.2) 149 (16.7) 2082 (14.5)
 A levels or equivalent NA NA NA NA NA NA 315 (29.3) 295 (24.4) 1948 (32.5) 1760 (33.7) 305 (34.2) 4623 (32.1)
 Degree NA NA NA NA NA NA 188 (17.5) 198 (16.4) 1231 (20.6) 1210 (23.2) 191 (21.4) 3018 (21.0)
Cholesterol-lowering medications 70 (26.6) 128 (33.4) 328 (20.1) 107 (23.4) 11 (16.2) 644 (23.0) 841 (78.2) 990 (82.0) 4876 (81.4) 4488 (85.9) 732 (82.1) 11927 (82.9)
Antihypertensive medications 168 (63.9) 247 (64.5) 883 (54.2) 217 (47.4) 27 (39.7) 1542 (55.0) 746 (69.3) 855 (70.8) 4047 (67.6) 3774 (72.3) 651 (73.0) 10073 (70.0)
Antiplatelet agents 118 (44.9) 187 (48.8) 725 (44.5) 207 (45.2) 23 (33.8) 1260 (45.0) 810 (75.3) 902 (74.7) 4655 (77.7) 4305 (82.4) 736 (82.5) 11408 (79.3)
Digoxin 9 (3.4) 19 (5.0) 62 (3.8) 10 (2.2) 2 (2.9) 102 (3.6) 16 (1.5) 29 (2.4) 86 (1.4) 66 (1.3) 12 (1.3) 209 (1.5)
Warfarinc NA NA NA NA NA NA 59 (5.5) 106 (8.8) 358 (6.0) 313 (6.0) 34 (3.8) 870 (6.0)
  1. Data are number (percentage) unless otherwise specified
  2. BMI, body mass index; HSE, the Health Survey for England; NA, not applicable; SD, standard deviation; SHeSs, the Scottish Health Survey
  3. aSocioeconomic position was defined using the participant’s occupational classification, categorised as low (semi-skilled or unskilled manual), intermediate (skilled non-manual or manual), or high (professional or managerial technical)
  4. bHighest educational qualification was categorised into four levels: None, O levels/GCSEs, CSEs or equivalent; A/AS levels, NVQ or HND or HNC or equivalent, or other professional qualification; college or university degree
  5. cNone of the participants in HSE/SHeSs reported using warfarin on a regular basis