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Table 3 Best-fitting models and results of the meta-analysis on alcohol consumption and risk of mortality and subsequent cardiovascular events

From: Association of alcohol consumption with morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease: original data and meta-analysis of 48,423 men and women

Outcome and subgroup No. of studies (curves) No. of patients Maximal effect sizea Reversion point, g/dayb Powers for the Best-Fitting FP2
RR (95% CI) g/day dose_1 dose_2
All-cause mortality
 Overall 11 (11) 41,743 0.79 (0.73–0.85) 7 62 −0.5 1
 Male 6 (6) 19,897 0.82 (0.72–0.93) 9 39 0 0.5
 Female 3 (3) 6046 0.64 (0.36–1.14) 54 49 −2 3
 MI as primary event 9 (9) 29,554 0.82 (0.68–0.99) 2 7 −1 0.5
 Angina as primary event 2 (2) 8938 0.79 (0.63–0.99) 39 46 0.5 3
 Stroke as primary event 3 (3) 3618 0.71 (0.42–1.20) 12 NA 0 0.5
 Reference group including former drinkers 9 (9) 41,405 0.77 (0.69–0.85) 16 75 −0.5 2
 Reference group excluding former drinkers 4 (4) 17,526 0.85 (0.71–1.00) 3 3 −0.5 −0.5
 Post-event alcohol assessment 8 (8) 37,245 0.81 (0.74–0.88) 9 52 0 0.5
 Multiple alcohol measures 2 (2) 12,337 0.78 (0.59–1.03) 16 NA −0.5 −0.5
Cardiovascular mortality
 Overall 9 (9) 24,770 0.73 (0.64–0.83) 8 50 0 0.5
 Male 5 (5) 14,536 0.72 (0.62–0.85) 9 32 0 0.5
 Female 2 (2) 4790 0.29 (0.09–1.01) 54 54 0 2
 MI as primary event 6 (6) 12,422 0.76 (0.64–0.91) 3 25 −2 3
 Angina as primary event 2 (2) 8934 0.72 (0.42–1.23) 56 NA 3 3
 Stroke as primary event 3 (3) 3617 0.63 (0.37–1.08) 26 NA 0 3
 Reference group including former drinkers 6 (6) 24,269 0.73 (0.58–0.93) 13 27 0 0.5
 Reference group excluding former drinkers 5 (5) 17,683 0.71 (0.55–0.90) 7 29 −0.5 0.5
 Post-event alcohol assessment 7 (7) 21,525 0.73 (0.60–0.90) 8 43 0 0
 Multiple alcohol measures 1 (1) 1818 0.58 (0.40–0.84) 17 33 −0.5 3
Cardiovascular events
 Overallc 4 (5) 28,621 0.50 (0.26–0.96) 6 15 −2 −2
 Male 3 (4) 13,598 0.56 (0.23–1.34) 8 NA −2 −2
 Female 1 (1) 3775 0.67 (0.43–1.05) 54 49 −2 3
 MI as primary event 4 (5) 20,361 0.79 (0.66–0.94) 11 35 −2 3
 Angina as primary event 1 (1) 8747 0.69 (0.59–0.81) 35 n.a. −2 1
 Stroke as primary event 1 (1) 1855 0.49 (0.26–0.92) 72 n.a. −2 3
 Reference group including former drinkers 3 (3) 25,983 0.72 (0.53–0.97) 40 45 1 1
 Reference group excluding former drinkers 2 (3) 17,020 0.78 (0.46–1.31) 17 NA 3 3
 Multiple alcohol measures 1 (1) 353 0.32 (0.14–0.71) 38 n.a. 2 3
  1. FP2 second-degree fractional polynomial model, MI myocardial infarction
  2. aDefined as the lowest point of the dose-response curve within the range of dose reported by the studies
  3. bDefined as the dose of alcohol at which protection against the outcome is no longer statistically significant at the 95% confidence level; not applicable (NA) if non-significant association was found at any level of consumption; not available (n.a.) if the association remained significant within the range of dose reported by the studies
  4. cAll of the four studies measured post-event alcohol consumption and had a quality score ≥ 7