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Table 1 Characteristics of analysed primary studies per pre-existing condition

From: Pre-existing health conditions and severe COVID-19 outcomes: an umbrella review approach and meta-analysis of global evidence

Disease group Pre-existing condition Outcomes included Number of systematic reviews reporting primary studies Number of resulted estimates Number of primary studies Countries Sample sizes (min – max) GRADE confidence in estimate (min – max)
Circulatory diseases Arrhythmia Hospitalisation; case mortality; hospital mortality; intubation 13 [35, 39, 42, 54, 57, 70, 78, 90, 96, 97, 114, 124, 133] 9 7 [198, 210, 233, 240, 245, 262, 272] Italy; UK; Denmark; Spain; USA; China 322–11,122 moderate - high
Circulatory diseases Cardiovascular disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 57 [3, 4, 6, 18, 19, 23, 24, 26,27,28,29, 31, 34, 35, 37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 46, 48, 53, 54, 57,58,59,60, 64, 66, 68,69,70, 74, 76, 78, 88, 90,91,92, 95,96,97, 103, 105, 111, 114, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124, 126, 127, 132, 133] 21 32 [135, 139, 140, 156, 157, 159, 160, 175, 182, 187, 190, 196, 199, 203, 216, 218, 220, 228, 235, 238, 241, 242, 245, 255, 256, 262, 264,265,266, 274, 276, 290] Iran; France; Spain; Italy; Israel; USA; Brazil; Mexico; China; Korea 103–89,756 low - high
Circulatory diseases Coronary artery disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; ICU admission; intubation 70 [4, 5, 18, 20, 21, 24, 25, 27,28,29, 31, 34, 35, 38,39,40,41,42, 47, 48, 50,51,52, 54, 55, 57,58,59,60, 63,64,65,66, 68, 70, 74, 77, 78, 80, 81, 83,84,85, 87,88,89,90,91, 94,95,96,97, 102,103,104,105, 111, 114, 116, 117, 120, 122, 124,125,126, 129,130,131,132,133] 17 26 [63, 138, 153, 157, 158, 161, 163, 176, 186, 193, 198, 205, 207, 210, 213, 230, 233, 234, 240, 245, 252, 267, 272, 283, 290, 291] UK; Italy; Europe; Denmark; USA; China; Korea 112–11,210 low - high
Circulatory diseases Heart disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 17 [21, 24, 31, 37, 38, 42, 54, 57, 64, 74, 78, 81, 93, 104, 114, 120, 122] 7 6 [149, 170, 192, 200, 254, 275] Spain; UK; USA; China 103–15,194 low - high
Circulatory diseases Heart failure Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 29 [4, 5, 21, 25, 28, 29, 35, 37,38,39, 42, 54, 57, 58, 64, 68, 70, 78, 81, 90, 96, 97, 111, 114, 117, 120, 124, 126, 133] 15 22 [138, 139, 162, 169, 173, 177, 191, 198, 205, 213, 230, 233, 234, 240, 245, 248, 251, 252, 267, 271, 272, 283] Italy; UK; Denmark; USA; China 191–31,461 low - high
Circulatory diseases Hypertension ICU admission; hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 71 [3,4,5,6, 18, 19, 21, 23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31, 33,34,35, 37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 53,54,55, 57,58,59, 62,63,64,65,66, 68,69,70, 72, 74, 78, 81, 88, 90,91,92,93, 95,96,97, 99, 103,104,105, 107, 111, 114, 117, 120, 122,123,124, 127, 128, 132, 133] 37 71 [134, 137,138,139, 143, 145, 148, 149, 152, 153, 155, 156, 158,159,160, 163, 164, 167,168,169, 173,174,175,176,177, 182, 192,193,194, 198,199,200, 203, 205, 207, 210, 213, 216, 219,220,221, 226,227,228, 233,234,235, 239,240,241,242, 245, 246, 248, 251, 252, 255, 258, 262, 265, 267, 268, 271, 272, 274, 275, 278, 281, 284, 287, 290] Kuwait; Spain; UK; Italy; Europe; Denmark; Israel; Switzerland; France; USA; Mexico; Bolivia; China; Korea; South Africa 103–89,756 low - high
Circulatory diseases Infarction Hospital mortality; case mortality 4 [37, 57, 68, 97] 4 4 [169, 177, 191, 271] Italy; USA; China 2877 – 31,461 moderate - high
Circulatory diseases Peripheral vascular disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; intubation; case mortality 4 [37, 54, 97, 133] 5 3 [191, 271, 272] USA 2015 – 31,461 moderate - moderate
Circulatory diseases Venous thromboembolism Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; intubation 9 [29, 39, 54, 70, 78, 97, 114, 120, 133] 4 3 [233, 235, 272] UK; USA 238–3703 low - moderate
Immunodeficiency Autoimmune condition Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality 4 [54, 78, 90, 97] 7 4 [149, 187, 228, 262] Spain; USA 322–9437 moderate - high
Immunodeficiency HIV Hospital mortality; ICU admission; case mortality; intubation 17 [5, 28, 35, 37,38,39, 42, 62, 64, 70, 90, 96, 97, 111, 114, 120, 124] 10 8 [138, 148, 180, 191, 199, 229, 233, 257] UK; USA; South Africa 251–47,539 low - high
Immunodeficiency Inflammatory bowel disease Hospital mortality; intubation; hospitalisation 14 [5, 28, 35, 38, 39, 42, 90, 92, 96, 97, 111, 114, 120, 124] 3 2 [138, 261] USA 464–841 moderate - moderate
Immunodeficiency Immunosuppression Hospital mortality; intubation; hospitalisation; ICU admission; case mortality 19 [5, 28, 29, 35, 38, 39, 42, 44, 57, 64, 68, 78, 90, 95,96,97, 111, 120, 124] 12 12 [138, 140, 142, 147, 152, 158, 182, 203, 226, 252, 265, 271] Italy; USA; Brazil; Mexico 302–89,756 moderate - high
Immunodeficiency Organ transplant recipients Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 13 [5, 28, 35, 38, 39, 42, 78, 90, 96, 97, 111, 120, 124] 6 3 [138, 240, 271] Denmark; USA 841–11,122 moderate - high
Immunodeficiency Rheumatological disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 15 [5, 28, 35, 37,38,39, 42, 78, 90, 96, 97, 111, 114, 120, 124] 8 5 [138, 166, 191, 203, 240] Denmark; USA 156–31,461 moderate - high
Liver & Metabolic diseases Chronic kidney disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; ICU admission; intubation 37 [4,5,6, 19, 21, 25, 28, 29, 35, 37,38,39, 42, 44, 46, 54, 55, 57, 58, 62, 64, 68, 70, 78, 81, 90, 95,96,97, 104, 111, 114, 117, 120, 124, 126, 133] 30 55 [137, 138, 140, 142, 148, 149, 152, 153, 156, 159, 160, 162, 163, 169, 170, 176, 177, 182, 186, 187, 190, 191, 193, 198, 199, 203, 205, 207, 218, 219, 226, 228, 230, 233,234,235, 240,241,242, 245, 246, 248, 251, 252, 256, 262, 264,265,266,267, 271,272,273, 283, 290] Spain; UK; Italy; Europe; Denmark; USA; Brazil; Mexico; China; Korea; South Africa 112–89,756 low - high
Liver & Metabolic diseases Chronic liver disease Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 16 [21, 24, 25, 37, 42, 57, 64, 78, 81, 90, 97, 104, 114, 117, 120, 124] 15 13 [140, 170, 187, 191, 192, 199, 228, 240, 251, 252, 260, 262, 290] UK; Denmark; Spain; USA; Brazil; China 322–31,461 low - high
Liver & Metabolic diseases Chronic liver disease/Cirrhosis Hospital mortality; intubation 17 [5, 28, 35, 38, 39, 42, 57, 64, 70, 90, 96, 97, 111, 114, 120, 124, 133] 6 5 [138, 143, 192, 233, 248] Spain; UK; USA 242–4035 moderate - high
Liver & Metabolic diseases Chronic liver disease /Non-cirrhotic Hospital mortality 4 [70, 97, 114, 120] 2 2 [192, 233] UK; USA 363–614 moderate - moderate
Liver & Metabolic diseases Diabetes ICU admission; hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 69 [3,4,5,6, 18, 19, 21, 23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31, 33,34,35, 37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 53,54,55, 57,58,59, 62,63,64, 68,69,70, 72, 78, 81, 88, 90, 92, 93, 95,96,97, 99, 103,104,105, 107, 111, 114, 117, 120, 123, 124, 126,127,128, 132, 133] 38 80 [134, 135, 138,139,140, 142, 145, 148,149,150, 152, 153, 158,159,160, 163, 164, 167,168,169,170, 173, 175, 176, 182, 187, 191,192,193, 195, 196, 198,199,200, 202,203,204,205, 207, 210, 216, 218,219,220,221, 225,226,227,228, 230, 233,234,235, 238, 240,241,242, 245, 246, 248, 251, 252, 255, 256, 258, 262,263,264,265,266,267, 271, 272, 280, 283, 284, 289, 290, 292] Kuwait; Iran; France; Spain; UK; Italy; Europe; Denmark; Israel; USA; Brazil; Mexico; China; Korea; South Africa 92–89,756 low - high
Liver & Metabolic diseases Dyslipidemia or hyperlipidemia Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 32 [4,5,6, 21, 25, 27,28,29, 31, 33, 35, 39, 42, 54, 63, 64, 68, 70, 78, 81, 90, 93, 96, 97, 99, 111, 114, 120, 124, 126, 132, 133] 12 12 [149, 192, 205, 218, 230, 234, 235, 245, 258, 262, 263, 271] Spain; Italy; France; USA 124–9437 low - high
Liver & Metabolic diseases Hepatitis Hospital mortality; intubation 13 [5, 28, 35, 38, 39, 42, 55, 90, 96, 97, 111, 120, 124] 3 2 [138, 219] USA; China 841–2665 moderate - moderate
Neurological diseases & Mental health Cerebrovascular/Stroke Hospital mortality; ICU admission; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 44 [4,5,6, 19, 24, 27,28,29, 31, 34, 35, 37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 48, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 64, 66, 68, 70, 74, 76, 78, 88, 90, 91, 95,96,97, 105, 111, 114, 116, 117, 120, 124, 133] 17 20 [138, 145, 155, 156, 186, 191, 196, 207, 210, 213, 219, 233, 235, 240, 246, 256, 262, 271, 272, 276] Italy; UK; Denmark; Spain; USA; China; Korea 103–31,461 low - high
Neurological diseases & Mental health Dementia Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 22 [21, 29, 35, 37, 39, 42, 54, 57, 64, 68, 70, 78, 81, 90, 96, 97, 104, 114, 117, 120, 124, 133] 12 14 [143, 146, 149, 150, 170, 191, 196, 199, 220, 233, 240, 245, 262, 272] Spain; UK; Italy; Denmark; Israel; USA; Korea 92–31,461 low - high
Neurological diseases & Mental health Depression Hospitalisation 4 [78, 90, 97, 114] 2 3 [139, 220, 262] Israel; Spain; USA 322–1052 low - moderate
Neurological diseases & Mental health Neurological disease Hospital mortality; ICU admission; case mortality 15 [21, 37, 39, 42, 57, 64, 68, 78, 81, 97, 104, 114, 120, 126, 133] 5 5 [140, 143, 170, 203, 266] Spain; UK; USA; Brazil 2070–15,194 moderate - high
Neurological diseases & Mental health Psychiatric disorder Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality 2 [78, 124] 3 2 [220, 240] Denmark; Israel 782–11,122 high - high
Oncological diseases Cancer Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 38 [4,5,6, 19, 21, 24, 28,29,30, 35, 37, 39, 42, 44, 54, 55, 57, 58, 64, 68, 70, 72, 78, 81, 90, 96, 97, 104, 107, 111, 114, 117, 120, 123, 124, 126, 128, 133] 19 30 [139, 149, 156, 167, 169, 170, 187, 191, 198, 199, 205, 207, 210, 211, 218, 219, 221, 225, 228, 234, 235, 240, 245, 252, 256, 262, 267, 271, 272, 283, 290] Spain; Italy; UK; Denmark; USA; China; Korea 238–31,461 low - high
Oncological diseases Cancer/Active Hospital mortality; ICU admission; intubation 18 [5, 25, 28, 35, 38, 39, 42, 57, 64, 78, 90, 96, 97, 104, 111, 120, 124, 133] 8 6 [138, 141, 143, 161, 176, 251] Spain; Italy; UK; USA 407–4035 moderate - high
Oncological diseases Cancer/ Haematological Hospital mortality 5 [70, 97, 108, 114, 123] 2 3 [233, 249, 253] UK; Spain 92–1183 low - high
Oncological diseases Cancer/Solid Hospital mortality; case mortality 4 [37, 70, 97, 114] 2 2 [191, 233] UK; USA 614–31,461 moderate - high
Overweight, obesity, underweight Obesity/BMI > 30 ICU admission; hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 39 [4,5,6, 21, 25, 27,28,29, 31, 33, 35, 37,38,39, 42, 44, 54, 57, 63, 64, 68, 70, 78, 81, 90, 93, 95,96,97, 99, 104, 111, 114, 117, 120, 124, 126, 132, 133] 27 53 [134, 137, 140,141,142,143, 149, 152, 154, 158, 163, 164, 168,169,170, 173, 181, 182, 184, 187, 192, 195, 198,199,200, 202, 203, 205, 213, 216, 218, 220, 226,227,228, 230, 234, 235, 237, 240, 245, 246, 251, 252, 258, 259, 262, 264,265,266, 271, 272, 283] Kuwait; Spain; Italy; UK; France; Denmark; Israel; USA; Brazil; Mexico 103–89,756 low - high
Overweight, obesity, underweight Obesity/BMI > 40 ICU admission; hospital mortality; hospitalisation; intubation; case mortality 19 [5, 21, 28, 29, 35, 39, 57, 58, 64, 68, 78, 81, 96, 97, 111, 114, 120, 124, 126] 7 8 [134, 184, 195, 205, 234, 252, 267, 271] Kuwait; USA 463–6916 high - high
Overweight, obesity, underweight Overweight ICU admission; intubation; hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality 25 [5, 6, 21, 25, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 39, 42, 54, 63, 78, 81, 93, 96, 97, 99, 114, 120, 124, 126, 132, 133] 11 11 [134, 184, 187, 200, 227, 228, 234, 251, 258, 271, 272] Kuwait; France; USA 103–6916 low - high
Overweight, obesity, underweight Underweight Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; intubation; case mortality 12 [4, 21, 25, 28, 29, 37, 70, 78, 81, 97, 114, 120] 7 6 [184, 187, 199, 228, 230, 271] USA 200–6916 low - moderate
Respiratory diseases Asthma Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; intubation; case mortality 19 [19, 29, 39, 42,43,44, 54, 57, 64, 70, 78, 90, 95, 97, 111, 114, 120, 126, 133] 12 16 [139, 140, 158, 182, 212, 218, 226, 228, 233, 252, 262, 265, 271,272,273, 283] UK; Spain; USA; Brazil; Mexico 322–89,756 low - high
Respiratory diseases COPD Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation; ICU admission 54 [4, 6, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27,28,29,30,31, 34, 35, 38,39,40,41,42, 44, 46, 48, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 78, 81, 88, 90, 91, 95,96,97, 105, 107, 111, 114, 116, 117, 120, 123, 124, 126, 128, 133] 21 34 [137, 139, 142, 148, 149, 152, 156, 158, 160, 167, 182, 186, 207, 213, 218, 219, 226, 228, 230, 233, 239, 241, 245, 252, 256, 257, 262, 263, 265, 272, 276, 283, 288, 290] Spain; Italy; UK; Switzerland; USA; Mexico; China; Korea 145–89,756 low - high
Respiratory diseases COPD or Asthma Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; intubation; ICU admission 17 [5, 21, 25, 29, 35, 38, 39, 64, 78, 81, 96, 97, 111, 114, 120, 124, 126] 5 5 [173, 198, 234, 248, 251] USA 214–5279 moderate - moderate
Respiratory diseases Interstitial lung disease Hospital mortality 1 [97] 1 1 [228] USA 5776 high - high
Respiratory diseases Obstructive sleep apnea Intubation; hospitalisation 11 [4, 21, 25, 28, 29, 70, 78, 81, 95, 111, 114] 2 2 [158, 230] USA 200–1526 moderate - high
Respiratory diseases Respiratory disease Hospital mortality; ICU admission; hospitalisation; case mortality; intubation 33 [4, 5, 21, 28, 29, 31, 35, 37,38,39, 41, 42, 54, 57, 62, 64, 66, 68, 78, 81, 90, 93, 96, 97, 104, 111, 114, 117, 120, 124, 126, 133] 24 26 [138, 140, 142, 145, 148, 150, 169, 170, 176, 187, 191, 192, 196, 199, 200, 203, 216, 220, 235, 240, 242, 255, 264, 266, 268, 271] Italy; UK; Spain; Denmark; Israel; USA; Brazil; Mexico; China; Korea; South Africa 92–51,633 low - high
Respiratory diseases Tuberculosis Hospital mortality; hospitalisation; case mortality 4 [55, 62, 68, 100] 6 3 [148, 219, 269] China; Philippines; South Africa 330–22,308 moderate - high
  1. No number, ICU intensive care unit