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Table 1 The characteristics of participants

From: Discovery and validation of methylation signatures in circulating cell-free DNA for early detection of esophageal cancer: a case-control study

Parameters Marker selection Training set Test set Independent validation set
Cancer (n = 24) Cancer (n = 43) Control (n = 67) P value Cancer (n = 42) Control (n = 68) P value Cancer (n = 83) Control (n = 98)
Age, n (%)     0.29    0.22   
 ≥ 55 23 (96%) 33 (77%) 44 (66%)   31 (74%) 41 (60%)   77 (92.8%) 57 (58.2%)
 40–55 1 (4%) 10 (23%) 23 (34%)   11 (26%) 27 (40%)   6 (7.2%) 41 (41.8%)
Sex, n (%)     0.002    1.00   
 Female 6 (25%) 7 (16%) 31 (46%)   14 (33%) 23 (34%)   32 (38.6%) 52 (53.1%)
 Male 18 (75%) 36 (84%) 36 (54%)   28 (67%) 45 (66%)   51 (61.4%) 46 (46.9%)
Smoking history, n (%)     0.02    0.44   
 Smokers 6 (25%) 12 (28%) 7 (10%)   9 (21%) 10 (15%)   24 (28.9%) 39 (39.8%)
 Non-smokers 18 (75%) 31 (72%) 60 (90%)   33 (79%) 58 (85%)   52 (62.7%) 59 (60.2%)
 Unknown         7 (8.4%)  
Alcohol history, n (%)     1.00    0.10   
 Drinkers 0 4 (9%) 7 (10%)   3 (7%) 13 (19%)   14 (16.9%) 48 (49.0%)
 Non-drinkers 24 (100%) 39 (91%) 60 (90%)   39 (93%) 55 (81%)   59 (71.1%) 50 (51.0%)
 Unknown         10 (12.0%)  
Pathological type          
 ESCC, n (%) 22 (92%) 39 (91%)    38 (90%)    72 (86.7%)  
 EAC, n (%) 2 (8%) 4 (9%)    4 (10%)    8 (9.6%)  
 Others, n (%)         3 (3.6%)  
Stage, n (%)          
 Stage 0 4 (17%) 3 (7%)    2 (5%)    10 (12.0%)  
 Stage I 13 (54%) 9 (21%)    8 (19%)    14 (16.9%)  
 Stage II 4 (17%) 11 (26%)    13 (31%)    27 (32.5%)  
 Stage III 2 (8%) 12 (28%)    7 (17%)    14 (16.9%)  
 Stage IV 1 (4%) 8 (19%)    6 (14%)    18 (21.7%)  
 Unknown          
Healthy control, n (%)    62 (93%)    63 (93%)    98 (100%)
Benign disease, n (%)    5 (7%)    5 (7%)