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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants in the study

From: Activated gut-homing CD8+ T cells for coeliac disease diagnosis on a gluten-free diet

  CD patients Non-CD controls
Total Marsh 3 Marsh 1 Total Healthy NR-GFD R-GFD
N = 22 N = 14 N = 8 N = 48 N = 13 N = 21 N = 14
Age(years)        
 Mean ± SE 50.4 ± 3.5 49.3 ± 4.2 52.0 ± 6.4 38.3 ± 1.9 40.0 ± 3 .7 35.5 ± 2.5 40.5 ± 4.0
 Range 24–83 24–69 31–83 16–63 23–63 16–49 19–62
Age at diagnosis (years)        
 Mean ± SE 41.8 ± 3.8 40.1 ± 4.5 44.7± 7.1 -- -- -- --
 Range 15–80 15–65 22–80     
Females (N, %) 16 (72.7) 10 (71) 6 (75) 37 (77.1) 10 (77) 14 (67) 13 (93)
ATG2 positive (N, %) 22 (100)‡ 14 (100)‡ 8 (100) 0 0 0 0
HLA (N, %)        
 DQ2.5 20 (91.0) 13 (93) 7 (87.5) 21 (44.7) 8 (62) 10 (50) 3 (21)
 DQ8 0 0 0 5 (10.6) 0 3 (15) 2 (14)
 DQ2.2 1 (4.5) 1 (7) 0 7 (14.9) 1 (8) 2 (10) 4 (29)
 DQ7.5 0 0 0 4 (8.5) 1 (8) 1 (5) 2 (14)
 Non-DQ2/DQ8 1 (4.5) 0 1 (12.5) 10 (21.3) 3 (23) 4 (20) 3 (21)
Histology (N, %)§        
 ND 0 0 0 16 (33.3) 13 (100) 0 3 (21)
 Marsh 0 0 0 0 21 (43.8) 0 14 (67) 7 (50)
 Marsh 1 8 (36.4) 0 8 (100) 11 (22.9) 0 6 (29) 4 (29)
 Marsh 3a 5 (22.7) 5 (38) 0 0 0 0 0
 Marsh 3b 4 (18.2) 4 (31) 0 0 0 0 0
 Marsh 3c 4 (18.2) 4 (31) 0 0 0 0 0
Time on GFD        
 Mean ± SE (years) 7.4 ± 1.3 8.0 ± 1.7 6.2 ± 2.0 1.8 ± 0.4 0.09 ± 0.005 2.6 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.8
 Range 1–25 years 1–25 years 1–16 years 1 month–11 years 30–45 days 1 month–6 years 4 months–11 years
  1. Abbreviations: CD, coeliac disease; GFD, gluten-free diet; NR-GFD, disease controls with no clinical response to a GFD; R-GFD, disease controls with a clinical response to a GFD; ND, not done; ATG2, antibodies against transglutaminase type 2; DQ2.5 = DQB1*02 and DQA1*05; DQ8 = DQB1*03:02-DQA1*03; DQ2.2 = DQB1*02:02-DQA1*02:01; DQ7.5 = DQB1*03:01-DQA1*05
  2. †Age at the moment of the gluten challenge; ‡one patient only had anti-endomysial antibodies tested (with a positive result); §one patient had Marsh 3 with no information about the subtype