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Table 2 Covariate analysis for symptom development rate for Kenya and Blantyre. Asymptomatic, symptomatic and total TB duration by sex, age and HIV status for Kenya and Blantyre, Malawi (RR = risk ratio)

From: Durations of asymptomatic, symptomatic, and care-seeking phases of tuberculosis disease with a Bayesian analysis of prevalence survey and notification data

    Asymptomatic
duration, month
Symptom onset rate after TB activation, per year Symptomatc
duration, month
Total
duration, month
Crude rate Crude RR Adjusted RR
Kenya Overall   8.3 (6.8–10.1) 1.25 (1.05–1.50)    8.4 (7.1– 9.7) 16.7 (14.5–19.1)
Sex Female 8.1 (6.2–10.3) 1.30 (1.01–1.69) Reference Reference 7.2 (5.8–8.8) 15.4 (13.0–18.1)
Male 9.0 (7.2–11.2) 1.14 (0.93–1.40) 0.89 (0.63–1.20) 0.68 (0.50–0.89) 9.7 (8.2–11.5) 18.8 (16.1–21.8)
Age (15,25) 9.5 (6.6–13.0) 1.11 (0.76–1.60) reference reference 10.4 (7.9–13.2) 20.0 (16.1–24.4)
(25,35) 8.6 (6.3–11.4) 1.23 (0.90–1.66) 1.13 (0.75–1.67) 1.20 (0.77–1.69) 9.4 (7.5–11.5) 18.0 (15.0–21.6)
(35,45) 7.1 (5.0– 9.7) 1.55 (1.08–2.22) 1.43 (0.87–2.17) 1.72 (1.10–2.54) 7.7 (5.9– 9.7) 14.7 (11.9–18.1)
(45,55) 7.4 (4.8–10.7) 1.49 (0.94–2.31) 1.39 (0.80–2.43) 1.82 (0.95–3.17) 8.3 (6.0–11.1) 15.7 (12.4–19.7)
(55,65) 9.6 (6.1–13.7) 1.10 (0.70–1.74) 1.02 (0.55–1.72) 1.23 (0.68–2.06) 5.2 (3.1–8.3) 14.8 (10.9–19.4)
(65,Inf) 7.1 (4.6–10.2) 1.52 (0.97–2.35) 1.43 (0.80–2.55) 1.42 (0.89–2.34) 5.3 (3.4–7.7) 12.4 (9.4–16.0)
HIV Non-HIV 9.8 (7.9–12.2) 1.03 (0.85–1.25) Reference Reference 9.9 (8.5–11.7) 19.7 (17.1–23.0)
PLHIV 3.8 (2.4–5.6) 3.09 (1.96–4.80) 2.88 (1.82–4.54) 2.45 (1.45–3.68) 4.0 (2.5–5.7) 7.8 (5.8–10.2)
Blantyre Overall   3.8 (2.3–5.8) 3.10 (1.86–4.98)    3.7 (2.3–5.4) 7.5 (5.4–10.1)
Sex Female 3.5 (1.3–6.2) 3.90 (1.73–8.83) reference reference 3.1 (1.3–5.5) 6.6 (3.5–10.2)
Male 4.9 (2.6–7.9) 2.46 (1.34–4.48) 0.82 (0.29–1.82) 0.81 (0.30–1.71) 5.0 (2.9–7.7) 9.9 (6.7–13.8)
Age (15,50) 4.0 (2.3–6.2) 3.00 (1.74–5.03) reference reference 3.7 (2.1–5.6) 7.7 (5.3–10.3)
(50,Inf) 3.5 (1.1–7.1) 4.17 (1.46–10.84) 1.53 (0.45–3.94) 1.41 (0.47–4.16) 4.6 (1.9–8.1) 8.1 (4.3–12.5)
HIV Non-HIV 8.5 (5.0–12.7) 1.29 (0.76–2.16) reference reference 7.1 (4.3–10.8) 15.6 (11.3–20.8)
PLHIV 1.3 (0.3–3.0) 12.79 (3.77–41.16) 5.33 (1.90–11.92) 4.81 (1.65–12.82) 2.4 (1.0–4.1) 3.7 (1.9–6.0)
  1. RR risk ratio, PLHIV people living with HIV