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Table 1 Participant demographics, injury characteristics and cognitive scores at baseline (T1)

From: Rehabilitation of executive function in chronic paediatric brain injury: a randomized controlled trial

  Interventions Total (n = 76)
pGMT (n = 38) pBHW (n = 38)
Demographics
 Sex, girls, No. (%) 21 (55) 22 (58) 43 (57)
 Maternal educational level, No. (%) a
  Primary school 2 (5) 2 (5) 4 (5)
  High school 9 (24) 14 (37) 23 (30)
  University/college 25 (66) 21 (55) 46 (61)
 Intact family unit, No. (%) 24 (63) 26 (68) 50 (66)
 Age at intervention, No. (%)
  10–13 years 20 (53) 20 (53) 40 (53)
  14–17 years 18 (47) 18 (47) 36 (47)
 Hospital site, No. (%)
  St. Olavs Hospital Trondheim 20 (53) 22 (58) 42 (55)
  Oslo University Hospital 18 (47) 16 (42) 34 (45)
Injury characteristics
 Age at injury, median (IQR), years 8.4 (5.3–10.9) 8.5 (6.3–11.1) 8.5 (5.9–11)
 Time since injury, median (IQR), years 4.8 (2.8–6.6) 5.5 (3.3–7.5) 5.3 (3.3–7.3)
 Primary injury, No. (%)
  Brain tumour 15 (40) 14 (37) 29 (38)
  Traumatic brain injury 7 (18) 11 (29) 18 (24)
  Cerebrovascular accidents 10 (26) 7 (18) 17 (22)
  Infection/Inflammation 3 (8) 4 (11) 7 (9)
  Hypoxia/Anoxia 3 (8) 2 (5) 5 (7)
 Admitted to intensive care unit, No. (%) 25 (66) 24 (65) 49 (65)
 No. of days in intensive care unit, median (IQR) 4.0 (1.0–7.0) 2.0 (1.0–7.0) 2.0 (1.0–7.0)
 Cerebral imaging, No. (%) b 38 (100) 38 (100) 76 (100)
  Confirmatory findings, No. (%) c 36 (95) 31 (82) 67 (88)
 Pathological neurological findings at baseline, No. (%) 20 (53) 13 (34) 33 (43)
 Fatigue at baseline, reversed total score 54.7 (19.3) 55.9 (19.3) 55.3 (19.2)
Cognitive scores d, mean (SD)
 Intellectual ability (FSIQ), age normed (n = 72) 92.5 (13.2) 92.4 (13.6) 92.5 (13.3)
 BRIEFBRI parent, T-score (n = 76) 57.2 (9.4) 55.4 (15.1) 56.3 (12.5)
 BRIEFMI parent, T-score (n = 75) 62 (9.6) 60.1 (11.3) 61.1 (10.4)
 BRIEFBRI self-report T-score (n = 75) 50.9 (11.7) 52.1 (12.1) 51.5 (11.8)
 BRIEFMI self-report, T-score (n = 75) 55.7 (12.7) 57.2 (12.7) 56.4 (12.6)
 BRIEFBRI teacher report, T-score (n = 72) 57.6 (15.9) 59.3 (18.0) 58.5 (16.9)
 BRIEFMI teacher report, T-score (n = 71) 61.5 (11.8) 61.5 (16.5) 61.5 (14.3)
 Updating, scaled score (n = 73) 9.3 (2.9) 8.5 (2.8) 8.9 (2.8)
 Shifting, scaled score (n = 76) 8.5 (3.9) 7.8 (3.5) 8.1 (3.7)
 Inhibition, T-score (n = 76) 51.3 (8.6) 54 (7.7) 52.6 (8.3)
 Executive attention, scaled score (n = 76) 7.4 (3.9) 8.0 (3.2) 7.7 (3.6)
 Complex naturalistic task, total errors (n = 72) 27.4 (19.6) 29 (23.7) 28.3 (21.7)
  1. pGMT paediatric Goal Management Training, pBHW paediatric Brain Health Workshop, IQR Interquartile range, BRIEF Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, BRI Behavioral Regulation Index, MI Metacognition Index
  2. Only 73 out of 76 mothers (96%) stated their level of education
  3. bAll participants had conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) at some point. Of these, 4 individuals (11%) in the pGMT group and 7 (18%) in the pBHW group had only performed CT
  4. Out of the 9 individuals without confirmatory imaging (normal), 6 had sustained TBI, 1 hypoxia, and 2 with brain infection/inflammation. Three out of 9 participants without confirmatory imaging had conducted a CT only and all of these had TBI. d Fatigue is presented as reversed total score, linearly transformed to a 0–100 scale. A higher score indicate fewer fatigue symptoms
  5. Specifications cognitive measures
  6. Intellectual ability: Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth edition (WISC-V) with normalized IQ distribution (M = 100, SD = 15). Only 72 out of 76 managed to complete the required number of tests in WISC-V to calculate FSIQ. BRIEFBRI and BRIEFMI (T-scores, normative: M = 50, SD = 10). Update: digit span, from WISC-V (scaled score, normative: M = 10, SD = 3); shift: Trail Making Test 4 from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) (total time, scaled score, normative: M = 10, SD = 3); inhibition: commissions from Conners’ Continuous Performance Test, 3ed (CPT-III) (T-scores, normative: M = 50,SD = 10); and executive attention: Color Word Interference Test 4 (CWIT4, D-KEFS) (total time, scaled score, normative: M = 10, SD = 3). Complex naturalistic task: Children’s Cooking Task (CCT) (raw score, total errors)