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Table 2 Estimated difference between pGMT and pBHW in performance-based tests at 6-month follow-up with 95% confidence interval

From: Rehabilitation of executive function in chronic paediatric brain injury: a randomized controlled trial

EF outcomes pGMT, mean (SD)a pBHW, mean (SD)a Estimated mean difference (95% CI)b P value
Updating, raw scores (n = 70) 26.2 (5.5) 25.3 (4.4) − 0.2 (− 1.7 to 1.4) .830
Shifting, raw scores (n = 70) 94.3 (57.6) 96.4 (46.2) − 4.5 (− 18.9 to 9.9) .540
Inhibition, T-scores (n = 71) 48.3 (9.3) 54.8 (9.6) 5.2 (1.6 to 8.7) .005
Executive attention, raw scores (n = 71) 72.4 (31.7) 75.1 (22) 9.9 (2.2 to 17.6) .010
Complex naturalistic task, raw scores (n = 68) 18.7 (16.4) 15.8 (13.1) − 4.3 (− 8.4 to − 0.3) .040
  1. pGMT paediatric Goal Management Training, pBHW paediatric Brain Health Workshop
  2. Unadjusted mean (SD)
  3. Estimated mean differences from multiple linear regressions including the baseline measure as a covariate. Mean difference in raw scores except for inhibition (T-score), adjusted for baseline scores and strata; age at intervention (10 to 13 years/14 to 17 years) and study site (Trondheim/Oslo). Updating: Digit span, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth edition (WISC-V) (raw score); shifting: Trail Making Test 4 (TMT 4, from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System, D-KEFS) (raw score, total time); inhibition: commissions from Conners’ Continuous Performance Test, 3ed (CPT-III) (T-scores, normative: M = 50, SD = 10); executive attention: Color Word Interference Test 4 (CWIT4, D-KEFS) (raw score, total time); and complex naturalistic task: Children’s Cooking Task (CCT) (raw score, total errors)