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Table 1 Study characteristics of all studies included in the dose-response meta-analyses

From: The dose-response relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and alcohol-attributable mortality risk—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Country, region/city Study years Age range (years) Indicator of socioeconomic status (number of groups) Sample size by sex Number of deaths by sex Study quality
Christensen et al. 2017 [27] Denmark, Copenhagen, and Aarhus 1981–2009 30–70 Education (2) 38,982 (W), 35,287 (M) 87 (W), 270 (M) (−)
Connolly et al., 2010 [28] UK, Northern Ireland 2001–2006 25–74 Education (4), occupation (4) 369,245 (W), 351,382 (M) 201 (W), 377 (M) (−)
Faeh et al., 2010 [29] Switzerland 1990–2000 30–69 Education (3) 1,779,617 (W), 1,670,503 (M) 3911 (W), 12,245 (M) (−)
Hemström, 2002 [30] Sweden 1980–1995 20–64 Occupation (3) 749,260 (W), 730,789 (M) 1781 (W), 7766 (M) (+)
Herttua et al. 2017 [31] Finland 1988–2007 30–79 Education (3) 31,234,734 (W), 29,375,870 (M) 10,290 (W), 52,294 (M) (−)
  Sweden 1991–2008 30–79 Education (3) 46,921,357 (W), 46,187,540 (M) 5653 (W), 23,038 (M)  
Herttua et al., 2008 [32] Finland 2000–2003 30–80 Occupation (4) 2,018,000 (W), 1,891,000 (M) 555 (W), 2749 (M) (+)
Herttua et al., 2011 [33] Finland 2000–2007 15–79 Income (10) 226,930 (W), 219,890 (M) 1745 (W), 9770 (M) (−)
Leinsalu et al., 2003 [34] Estonia 1987–1990 20–70 Education (3) 610,006 (W), 495,219 (M) 83 (W), 334 (M) (−)
Mäkelä et al., 1997 [35] Finland 1985–1993 20–90 Occupation (3) 170,185 (W), 1,547,500 (M) 2809 (W), 18,026 (M) (+)
Mäki et al., 2008 [36] Finland 1990–2001 25–64 Income (4) 1,051,626 (M) 2703 (M) (−)
Mäki et al., 2009 [37] Finland 1990–2001 25–64 Income (4) 1,109,497 (W) 563 (W) (−)
Mackenbach et al., 2015 [11] Austria 2001–2002 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 2,210,000 (W), 2,038,000 (M) 102 (W), 403 (M) (+)
  Belgium 2004–2005 35–79 Education (3) 5,561,000 (W), 5,251,000 (M) 644 (W), 1452 (M)  
  Czechia 1998–2003 35–79 Education (3) 3,268,000 (W), 2,929,000 (M) 1461 (W), 4982 (M)  
  Denmark 1991–2005 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 2,782,000 (W), 2,665,000 (M) 2848 (W), 7961 (M)  
  Estonia 1998–2002 35−79 Education (3), occupation (3) 499,400 (W), 379,700 (M) 774 (W), 2139 (M)  
  Finland 2006–2010 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 1,723,000 (W), 1,640,000 (M) 1950 (W), 7001 (M)  
  France 1990–2007 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 579,000 (W), 552,000 (M) 274 (W), 932 (M)  
  Hungary 1988–2002 35–79 Education (3) 6,141,500 (W), 5,158,000 (M) 9451 (W), 30,751 (M)  
  Italy, Turin 2006–2010 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 244,500 (W), 212,000 (M) 9 (W), 38 (M)  
  Lithuania 2001–2009 35–69 Education (3), occupation (3) 1,731,000 (W), 1,458,000 (M) 2073 (W), 5287 (M)  
  Norway 1990–2009 40–79 Education (3) 3,204,000 (W), 3,151,000 (M) 1526 (W), 4211 (M)  
  Poland 2001–2003 35–64 Education (3) 11,267,000 (W), 10,686,000 (M) 1038 (W), 7917 (M)  
  Slovenia 2002–2006 35–79 Education (3) 631,000 (W), 560,000 (M) 913 (W), 2820 (M)  
  Spain, Barcelona 1992–2010 35–79 Education (3) 3,879,000 (W), 3,504,000 (M) 348 (W), 1040 (M)  
  Spain, Madrid 1996–1997 35–79 Education (3) 605,000 (W), 522,000 (M) 5 (W), 26 (M)  
  Switzerland 1990–2008 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 5,209,000 (W), 4,543,000 (M) 2598 (W), 5442 (M)  
  UK, England and Wales 2006–2009 35–79 Education (3), occupation (3) 177,000 (W), 166,000 (M) 55 (W), 93 (M)  
  UK, Scotland 2006–2010 35–79 Education (3) 80,000 (W), 73,000 (M) 53 (W), 129 (M)  
  Sweden 1995–1999 35–64 Occupation (3) 1,967,000 (M) 2020 (M)  
Mackenbach et al., 2008 [10] Belgium 1991–1995 30–74 Education (3) 2,805,780 (W), 2,718,890 (M) 2200 (W), 11,300 (M) (+)
  Denmark 1996–2000 30–74 Education (3) 1,571,700 (W), 1,523,030 (M) 1200 (W), 6400 (M)  
  Italy, Turin 1991–2001 30–74 Education (3) 247,500 (W), 239,810 (M) 400 (W), 2200 (M)  
  Spain, Basque Country 1996–2001 30–74 Education (3) 1,860,466 (W), 1,802,867 (M) 300 (W), 1700 (M)  
Martikainen et al., 2001 [38] Finland 1990–1995 35–85 Occupation (2) 1,170,200 (W), 976,400 (M) 723 (W), 3448 (M) (−)
Mateo-Urdiales et al. 2020 [39] Spain 2004–2011 ≥35 Education (3) 25,050,004 (W), 22,601,192 (M) 1690 (W), 9684 (M) (+)
Pechholdová and Jasilionis, 2020 [40] Lithuania 2011–2016 ≥30 Education (3) 1,340,504 (W), 1,028,114 (M) 936 (W), 2287 (M) (+)
  Czechia 2011–2012 ≥30 Education (3) 3,611,973 (W), 3,325,221 (M) 378 (W), 1037 (M)  
Pridemore et al., 2010 [41] Russia, Izhevst 2003–2005 25–54 Education (6) 3149 (M) 100 (M) (−)
Romeri et al., 2007 [42] UK, England and Wales 2001–2005 20–64 Occupation (9) 17,504,000 (W), 17,217,000 (M) 3655 (W), 13,011 (M) (−)
Shkolnikov et al., 1998 [43] Russia 1989 20–69 Education (2) 46,306,000 (W), 43,130,000 (M) 2071 (W), 7139 (M) (−)
Tarkiainen et al., 2016 [44] Finland 1988–2012 35–64 Income (5) 242,500 (W), 244,400 (M) 4783 (W), 17,147 (M) (+)
Tjepkema et al., 2013 [45] Canada 1991–2006 25–64 Occupation (5) 1,153,500 (W), 1,082,400 (M) 490 (W), 1730 (M) (+)
Tjepkema et al., 2012 [46] Canada 1991–2006 25–80 Education (4) 1,376,600 (W), 1,358,200 (M) 1127 (W), 2990 (M) (+)
Valkonen et al., 2000 [47] Finland 1980–1985 35–64 Occupation (2) 741,200 (W), 681,200 (M) 650 (W), 3150 (M) (+)
Valkonen, 1993 [48] Finland 1970–1985 35–64 Occupation (4) 732,000 (M) 9000 (M) (+)
Vierboom, 2020 [49] USA 1990–2011 30–74 Education (4) 529,295 (W), 444,273 (M) 789 (W), 1823 (M) (−)
  1. M men, W women
  2. (+) all quality criteria are met; (−) at least one quality criterion is not met