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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample (N = 3401)

From: Accelerating Sustainable Development Goals for South African adolescents from high HIV prevalence areas: a longitudinal path analysis

  Total n = 3401 Boys n = 1475 (43.4%) Girls n = 1926 (56.6%) Sex difference p value
Sociodemographic characteristics at baseline
 Province     0.030
  Western Cape 1753 (51.5%) 729 (41.6%) 1024 (58.4%)  
  Mpumalanga 1648 (48.5%) 746 (45.3%) 902 (54.7%)  
 Age     0.615
  Mean (SD) 13.43 (2.14) 13.4 (2.10) 13.44 (2.18)  
 Rural location     0.238
  Yes 1681 (49.4%) 712 (42.4%) 969 (57.6%)  
 Informal housing     0.153
  Yes 1068 (31.4%) 444 (41.6%) 624 (58.4)  
Hypothesized protective factors received at both T1 and T2
 Positive parenting     0.502
  Yes 875 (25.7%) 371 (42.4%) 504 (57.6%)  
 Parental monitoring     < 0.001
  Yes 2677 (78.7%) 1105 (41.2%) 1572 (58.7%)  
 Food sufficiency at home     0.776
  Yes 2829 (83.2%) 1230 (43.48) 1599 (56.5%)  
 HIV−/ asymptomatic caregiver     0.057
  Yes 3198 (94.0%) 1400 (43.8%) 1798 (56.2%)  
 Teacher support     0.365
 Yes 569 (16.7%) 237 (41.7%) 332 (58.4%)  
 Free school meals, textbooks and no fees     0.243
  Yes 1329 (39.1%) 560 (42.1%) 769 (57.8%)  
SDG outcomes at T2
 Physical abuse     0.226
  Yes 1289 (37.9%) 576 (44.7%) 713 (55.31)  
 Emotional abuse     0.004
  Yes 1076 (31.6%) 428 (39.8%) 648 (60.2%)  
 Sexual abuse     0.001
  Yes 295 (8.7%) 101 (34.2%) 194 (65.8%)  
 Bullying     0.022
  Yes 2494 (73.3%) 1111 (44.6%) 1383 (55.5%)  
 Domestic violence witnessing     0.002
  Yes 535 (15.7%) 200 (37.4%) 335 (62.6%)  
 Community violence exposure     0.723
  Yes 1312 (38.6%) 574 (43.8%) 738 (56.3%)  
 Community violence witnessing     0.124
  Yes 1338 (39.3%) 602 (45.0%) 736 (55.0%)  
 Suicidal ideation     < 0.001
  Yes 614 (18.1%) 213 (34.7%) 401 (65.7%)  
 HIV risk behaviour     < 0.001
  Yes 443 (13.0%) 251 (56.7%) 192 (43.3%)  
 TB symptomatic     0.105
  Yes 176 (5.2%) 66 (37.5%) 110 (62.5%)  
 Substance use     < 0.001
  Yes 249 (7.3%) 143 (57.4%) 106 (42.6%)  
 School dropout     0.046
  Yes 147 (4.3%) 52 (35.4%) 95 (64.6%)