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Table 2: Path model using multivariate probit regressions with correlated outcomes reporting standardized coefficients using the WLSMV estimator (n = 3396)

From: Accelerating Sustainable Development Goals for South African adolescents from high HIV prevalence areas: a longitudinal path analysis

  Coefficient 95% CI S.E. p value
Physical abuse
 Positive parenting − 0.066 − 0.11 to − 0.022 0.022 0.003
 Food sufficiency − 0.056 − 0.098 to − 0.013 0.022 0.010
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.107 − 0.147 to − 0.067 0.020 0.000
 Parental monitoring − 0.083 − 0.126 to − 0.039 0.022 0.000
 Teacher support − 0.013 − 0.057–0.03 0.022 0.546
 Free schooling 0.048 0.002–0.093 0.023 0.043
 Baseline physical abuse 0.079 0.033–0.125 0.023 0.001
 Age − 0.154 − 0.2 to − 0.108 0.023 0.000
 Province 0.230 0.168–0.292 0.032 0.000
 Urban location 0.057 0.011–0.103 0.023 0.015
 Informal housing − 0.008 − 0.061–0.044 0.027 0.758
 Sex − 0.011 − 0.053–0.032 0.022 0.625
Emotional abuse
 Positive parenting − 0.074 − 0.12 to − 0.027 0.024 0.002
 Food sufficiency − 0.095 − 0.138 to − 0.052 0.022 0.000
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.127 − 0.168 to − 0.085 0.021 0.000
 Parental monitoring − 0.085 − 0.129 to − 0.04 0.023 0.000
 Teacher support 0.038 − 0.006–0.082 0.023 0.091
 Free schooling 0.020 − 0.027–0.068 0.024 0.405
 Baseline emotional abuse 0.092 0.044–0.141 0.025 0.000
 Age 0.008 − 0.041–0.056 0.025 0.758
 Province − 0.007 − 0.072–0.059 0.033 0.844
 Urban location 0.028 − 0.019–0.076 0.024 0.247
 Informal housing − 0.050 − 0.103–0.003 0.027 0.066
 Sex 0.059 0.014–0.103 0.023 0.010
Sexual abuse
 Positive parenting − 0.064 − 0.131–0.002 0.034 0.058
 Food sufficiency − 0.046 − 0.108–0.015 0.031 0.141
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.045 − 0.101–0.012 0.029 0.122
 Parental monitoring − 0.040 − 0.101–0.02 0.031 0.190
 Teacher support 0.009 − 0.054–0.072 0.032 0.772
 Free schooling − 0.002 − 0.068–0.065 0.034 0.961
 Baseline sexual abuse 0.135 0.091–0.179 0.023 0.000
 Age 0.138 0.07–0.206 0.035 0.000
 Province 0.211 0.122–0.299 0.045 0.000
 Urban location 0.028 − 0.039–0.096 0.034 0.411
 Informal housing − 0.097 − 0.177 to − 0.017 0.041 0.018
 Sex 0.105 0.042–0.167 0.032 0.001
Witnessing domestic violence
 Positive parenting − 0.027 − 0.081–0.028 0.028 0.335
 Food sufficiency − 0.112 − 0.16 to − 0.064 0.025 0.000
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.067 − 0.114 to − 0.021 0.024 0.004
 Parental monitoring 0.000 − 0.054–0.055 0.028 0.993
 Teacher support − 0.032 − 0.086–0.022 0.028 0.244
 Free schooling − 0.025 − 0.083–0.032 0.029 0.392
 Baseline domestic violence 0.112 0.059–0.165 0.027 0.000
 Age − 0.043 − 0.098–0.011 0.028 0.121
 Province − 0.114 − 0.189 to − 0.039 0.038 0.003
 Urban location − 0.113 − 0.167 to − 0.058 0.028 0.000
 Informal housing − 0.022 − 0.081–0.038 0.030 0.472
 Sex 0.067 0.015–0.12 0.027 0.012
Bullying
 Positive parenting 0.030 − 0.017–0.078 0.024 0.213
 Food sufficiency − 0.077 − 0.124 to − 0.031 0.024 0.001
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.072 − 0.121 to − 0.023 0.025 0.004
 Parental monitoring − 0.069 − 0.116 to − 0.022 0.024 0.004
 Teacher support − 0.043 − 0.087–0.002 0.023 0.062
 Free schooling 0.042 − 0.007–0.092 0.025 0.091
 Baseline bullying 0.128 0.083–0.173 0.023 0.000
 Age − 0.109 − 0.156 to − 0.061 0.024 0.000
 Province − 0.013 − 0.081–0.055 0.035 0.711
 Urban location − 0.158 − 0.206 to − 0.111 0.024 0.000
 Informal housing 0.034 − 0.021–0.09 0.028 0.224
 Sex − 0.045 − 0.091–0.001 0.023 0.053
Witnessing community violence
 Positive parenting − 0.030 − 0.071–0.01 0.021 0.145
 Food sufficiency − 0.059 − 0.095 to − 0.023 0.018 0.001
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.021 − 0.061–0.019 0.020 0.299
 Parental monitoring − 0.035 − 0.073–0.003 0.020 0.073
 Teacher support 0.038 − 0.002–0.077 0.020 0.063
 Free schooling 0.001 − 0.039–0.041 0.021 0.954
 Baseline wit. community violence 0.148 0.11–0.186 0.020 0.000
 Age 0.108 0.068–0.148 0.021 0.000
 Province − 0.539 − 0.584 to − 0.493 0.023 0.000
 Urban location − 0.054 − 0.094 to − 0.013 0.021 0.009
 Informal housing − 0.025 − 0.068–0.018 0.022 0.261
 Sex − 0.051 − 0.09 to − 0.013 0.020 0.009
Experiencing community violence
 Positive parenting − 0.030 − 0.072–0.013 0.022 0.172
 Food sufficiency − 0.065 − 0.104 to − 0.026 0.020 0.001
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.084 − 0.126 to − 0.043 0.021 0.000
 Parental monitoring − 0.046 − 0.087 to − 0.005 0.021 0.029
 Teacher support 0.040 − 0.001–0.08 0.021 0.055
 Free schooling 0.024 − 0.02–0.068 0.023 0.288
 Baseline Exp Comm Viol 0.057 0.015–0.1 0.022 0.008
 Age 0.039 − 0.005–0.083 0.022 0.080
 Province − 0.414 − 0.467 to − 0.362 0.027 0.000
 Urban location − 0.291 − 0.332 to − 0.25 0.021 0.000
 Informal housing − 0.063 − 0.111 to − 0.016 0.024 0.008
 Sex − 0.022 − 0.063–0.018 0.021 0.282
School dropout
 Positive parenting − 0.046 − 4.538–4.446 2.292 0.984
 Food sufficiency − 0.080 − 7.944–7.784 4.012 0.984
 AIDS-free caregiver 0.008 − 0.827–0.844 0.426 0.984
 Parental monitoring − 0.020 − 1.941–1.902 0.980 0.984
 Teacher support − 0.378 − 37.417–36.661 18.897 0.984
 Free schooling − 0.026 − 2745.612–2745.559 1400.809 1.000
 Baseline school dropout 0.146 − 14.144–14.435 7.291 0.984
 Age 0.307 − 29.8–30.415 15.361 0.984
 Province 0.001 − 0.188–0.191 0.097 0.989
 Urban location 0.091 − 8.844–9.026 4.559 0.984
 Informal housing 0.049 − 4.74–4.838 2.443 0.984
 Sex 0.066 − 6.426–6.559 3.312 0.984
Substance use
 Positive parenting − 0.111 − 0.192 to − 0.029 0.042 0.008
 Food sufficiency − 0.023 − 0.084–0.037 0.031 0.450
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.031 − 0.093–0.032 0.032 0.339
 Parental monitoring − 0.088 − 0.147 to − 0.028 0.030 0.004
 Teacher support − 0.003 − 0.071–0.065 0.035 0.930
 Free schooling − 0.056 − 0.127–0.016 0.037 0.129
 Baseline substance use 0.044 − 0.02–0.108 0.033 0.180
 Age 0.321 0.257–0.384 0.032 0.000
 Province − 0.258 − 0.353 to − 0.164 0.048 0.000
 Urban location − 0.009 − 0.075–0.057 0.034 0.790
 Informal housing − 0.080 − 0.147 to − 0.012 0.034 0.020
 Sex − 0.135 − 0.201 to − 0.069 0.034 0.000
Suicidal ideation
 Positive parenting − 0.059 − 0.114 to − 0.005 0.028 0.033
 Food sufficiency − 0.097 − 0.143 to − 0.051 0.023 0.000
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.104 − 0.148 to − 0.061 0.022 0.000
 Parental monitoring 0.002 − 0.047–0.052 0.025 0.923
 Teacher support − 0.048 − 0.101–0.005 0.027 0.075
 Free schooling − 0.024 − 0.078–0.03 0.028 0.387
 Baseline suicidal ideation 0.140 0.095–0.186 0.023 0.000
 Age 0.121 0.07–0.173 0.026 0.000
 Province − 0.102 − 0.175 to − 0.029 0.037 0.006
 Urban location − 0.139 − 0.19 to − 0.087 0.026 0.000
 Informal housing − 0.032 − 0.09–0.026 0.030 0.283
 Sex 0.095 0.044–0.146 0.026 0.000
HIV risk behaviour
 Positive parenting − 0.006 − 0.065–0.054 0.030 0.854
 Food sufficiency − 0.060 − 0.11 to − 0.011 0.025 0.017
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.068 − 0.116 to − 0.02 0.025 0.006
 Parental monitoring − 0.072 − 0.12 to − 0.024 0.025 0.003
 Teacher support 0.008 − 0.047–0.063 0.028 0.776
 Free schooling − 0.087 − 0.144 to − 0.03 0.029 0.003
 Baseline HIV risk behaviour 0.193 0.155–0.232 0.020 0.000
 Age 0.326 0.27–0.383 0.029 0.000
 Province − 0.162 − 0.235 to − 0.088 0.038 0.000
 Urban location 0.026 − 0.029–0.081 0.028 0.360
 Informal housing 0.004 − 0.054–0.062 0.029 0.891
 Sex − 0.166 − 0.219 to − 0.114 0.027 0.000
TB symptomatic
 Positive parenting − 0.029 − 0.107–0.049 0.040 0.465
 Food sufficiency 0.065 − 0.017–0.148 0.042 0.122
 AIDS-free caregiver − 0.088 − 0.149 to − 0.026 0.031 0.005
 Parental monitoring − 0.013 − 0.096–0.07 0.042 0.763
 Teacher support 0.009 − 0.066–0.083 0.038 0.821
 Free schooling 0.040 − 0.044–0.123 0.043 0.352
 Baseline TB symptomology 0.135 0.075–0.196 0.031 0.000
 Age − 0.012 − 0.097–0.073 0.043 0.780
 Province 0.224 0.115–0.333 0.056 0.000
 Urban location − 0.067 − 0.154–0.02 0.044 0.129
 Informal housing 0.016 − 0.085–0.116 0.051 0.760
 Sex 0.057 − 0.019–0.132 0.038 0.140
  1. Model fit: χ2 = 258.387, df = 132, p < 001, CFI .967, TLI .914, RMSEA .017, WRMR .878