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Table 3. Adjusted predicted percentage probabilities for experiencing SDG outcomes and no, one, and all significant accelerators

From: Accelerating Sustainable Development Goals for South African adolescents from high HIV prevalence areas: a longitudinal path analysis

  Percentage probability Confidence interval Difference in % probability compared to no accelerator
Physical abuse
 No accelerator 57.2 47.2–67.1  
 Positive parenting 50.9 40.2–61.5 6.1 (2.3–9.9)
 Food sufficiency 50.9 41.6–60.3 6.1 (1.6–10.6)
 AIDS-free caregiver 38.4 31.3–45.5 18.6 (11.6–25.6)
 Parental monitoring 48.7 39.4–58.0 8.3 (4.2–12.4)
 Positive parenting & food sufficiency 44.6 34.8–54.3 12.6 (8.6–16.6)
 Positive parenting & AIDS-free caregiver 32.5 25.2–39.8 24.7 (20.9–28.5)
 Positive parenting & parental monitoring 42.4 32.8–51.9 14.8 (10.8–18.8)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 32.6 26.8–38.3 24.6 (20.7–28.5)
 Food sufficiency & parental monitoring 42.4 34–50.8 14.8 (10.8–18.8)
 AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 30.6 25.0–36.1 21.2 (17.5–24.9)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 27.0 21.2–32.8 30.2 (26.2–34.2)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency & parental monitoring 36.3 27.9–44.7 21.2 (17.0–25.4)
 Positive parenting, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 25.2 19.7–30.7 32.0 (28.0–36.0)
 Food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 25.3 21.1–29.4 31.9 (28.7–35.1)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 20.4 16.4–24.5 32.2 (29.0–37.4)
Emotional abuse
 No accelerator 53.0 42.8–63.1  
 Positive parenting 46.1 35.4–56.7 6.9 (3.1–10.7)
 Food sufficiency 42.6 33.2–51.9 10.4 (5.9–14.9)
 AIDS-free caregiver 31.7 25.2–38.2 21.3 (14.2–28.4)
 Parental monitoring 44.5 35.2–53.7 8.5 (4.4–12.6)
 Positive parenting & food sufficiency 35.9 26.6–45.3 17.1 (13.1–21.1)
 Positive parenting & AIDS-free caregiver 25.8 19.4–32.2 27.2 (23.4–31.0)
 Positive parenting & parental monitoring 37.7 28.4–47.1 15.3 (11.3–19.3)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 23.0 18.2–27.9 30.0 (26.4–33.6)
 Food sufficiency & parental monitoring 34.5 26.4–42.5 18.5 (15.1–21.9)
 AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 24.5 19.7–29.4 28.5 (25.1–31.9)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 18.1 13.5–22.7 34.9 (31.0–38.9)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency &parental monitoring 28.3 20.6–36.1 24.7 (20.6–28.8)
 Positive parenting, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 19.4 14.8–24.1 33.6 (29.7–37.5)
 Food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 17.1 13.8–20.4 35.9 (32.9–38.9)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 13.0 10.0–16.1 40.0 (35.9–44.1)
Bullying
 No accelerator 85.7 79.4–91.9  
 Food sufficiency 80.2 72.9–87.5 5.5 (2.3–8.7)
 AIDS-free caregiver 77.4 72.1–82.6 8.3 (3.3–13.3)
 Parental monitoring 81.3 74.4–88.2 4.4 (1.3–7.5)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 70.4 65.2–75.5 15.3 (11.8–18.8)
 Food sufficiency & parental monitoring 75.0 67.4–82.6 10.7 (7.8–13.6)
 AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 71.7 66.8–76.6 14.0 (10.7–17.3)
 Food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 64.0 59.8–68.3 21.7 (18.7–24.7)
HIV risk behaviour
 No accelerator 22.0 11.8–32.2  
 Food sufficiency 16.7 8.8–24.7 5.3 (1.9–8.7)
 AIDS-free caregiver 13.3 8.0–18.6 8.7 (3.8–13.6)
 Parental monitoring 16.3 8.2–24.4 5.7 (2.6–8.8)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 9.6 5.8–13.3 12.4 (9.8–15.0)
 Food sufficiency & parental monitoring 12.0 6.1–17.9 10.0 (7.5–12.5)
 AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 9.3 5.6–12.9 12.7 (10.2–15.2)
 Food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 6.5 4.1–8.9 15.5 (13.3–17.7)
TB symptomatic
 No accelerator 5.8 1.2–10.4  
 AIDS-free caregiver 2.5 0.6–4.4 3.3 (2.7–3.9)
Witnessing domestic violence
 No accelerators 27.1 17.6–36.6  
 Food sufficiency 17.9 10.7–25.1 9.2 (5.7–12.7)
 AIDS-free caregiver 18.3 12.6–24.1 8.8 (3.3–14.3)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 11.3 7.5–15.0 15.8 (13.0–18.6)
Experiencing community violence
 No accelerators 55.7 45.0–66.4  
 Food sufficiency 47.6 37.4–57.8 8.1 (3.6–12.6)
 AIDS-free caregiver 39.3 32.2–46.4 16.4 (9.5–23.3)
 Parental monitoring 50.5 40.5–60.5 5.2 (1.1–9.3)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregiver 31.7 25.9–37.5 24.0 (20.2–27.8)
 Food sufficiency & parental monitoring 42.4 33.1–51.7 13.3 (9.8–16.8)
 AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 34.4 28.5–40.2 21.3 (17.6 –25.0)
 Food sufficiency, AIDS-free caregiver & parental monitoring 27.2 22.7–31.7 28.5 (25.3–31.7)
Witnessing community violence
 No accelerators 43.3 31.9–54.7  
 Food sufficiency 35.3 25–45.5 8.0 (3.7–12.3)
Substance use
 No accelerators 7.5 1.5–13.6  
 Positive parenting 4.2 0.2–8.1 3.3 (1.4–5.2)
 Parental monitoring 4.6 0.8–8.4 2.9 (1.1–4.7)
 Positive parenting & parental monitoring 2.4 0.0–4.7 5.1 (3.1–7.1)
Suicide ideation
 No accelerators 32.4 22.6–42.3  
 Positive parenting 27.4 17.9–37 5.0 (1.4–8.6)
 Food sufficiency 23.2 15.2–31.3 9.2 (5.3–13.1)
 AIDS-free caregiver 17.8 12.3–23.2 14.6 (9.1–20.1)
 Positive parenting & food sufficiency 19.1 11.6–26.6 13.3 (9.6–17.0)
 Positive parenting & AIDS-free caregivers 14.3 9.2–19.4 18.1 (14.6–21.6)
 Food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregivers 11.5 7.8–15.3 20.9 (18.0–23.8)
 Positive parenting, food sufficiency & AIDS-free caregivers 9.0 5.6–12.4 23.4 (19.8–27.0)