Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariable and multivariable odds ratios showing the association between foetal movement variables and late stillbirth

From: A better understanding of the association between maternal perception of foetal movements and late stillbirth—findings from an individual participant data meta-analysis

  Case, N = 851 Control, N = 2257 Univariable OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR* (95% CI) Multivariable OR** (95% CI)
Strength of movements in the last 2 weeks: 4 categories
 Increased 124 1061 0.21 (0.17, 0.26) 0.18 (0.14, 0.23)  
 Decreased 195 179 1.94 (1.53, 2.45) 1.82 (1.37, 2.42)  
 No change 446 793 1 1  
 Unsure 79 118 1.19 (0.88, 1.62) 0.96 (0.67, 1.38)  
Frequency of movements in the last 2 weeks: 4 categories
 Increased 83 648 0.33 (0.25, 0.42) 0.29 (0.21, 0.38)  
 Decreased 265 268 2.52 (2.06, 3.09) 2.48 (1.94, 3.16)  
 No change 443 1131 1 1  
 Unsure 53 114 1.19 (0.84, 1.67) 0.93 (0.62, 1.39)  
How often was a baby more vigorous than usual in the last 2 weeks: 3 categories
 Once 133 124 2.25 (1.72, 2.95) 2.30 (1.68, 3.16) 2.86 (2.01, 4.07)
 More than once 165 903 0.38 (0.31, 0.47) 0.41 (0.32, 0.52) 0.67 (0.52, 0.87)
 Never 430 901 1 1 1
During the last 2 weeks/this pregnancy did you feel your baby having hiccups?
 Yes 355 1359 0.40 (0.34, 0.48) 0.42 (0.34, 0.53) 0.45 (0.36, 0.58)
 No 329 509 1 1 1
 Unsure 51 100 0.79 (0.55, 1.14) 0.94 (0.61, 1.44) 0.93 (0.58, 1.49)
During the last 2 weeks, did you feel uterine contractions (tightenings/pre-labour contractions/Braxton-Hicks contractions/false labour)?
 Yes 253 653 1.04 (0.86, 1.25) 0.97 (0.77, 1.22)  
 No 352 941 1 1  
Combination of strength and frequency changes in the last 2 weeks (prioritised variable) Missing = 6 Missing = 95    
 Increased strength 124 1061 0.22 (0.17, 0.27) 0.19 (0.15, 0.24) 0.20 (0.15, 0.27)
 Increased frequency but not strength 25 97 0.47 (0.30, 0.75) 0.44 (0.26, 0.74) 0.50 (0.29, 0.88)
 Decreased frequency 249 196 2.34 (1.87, 2.92) 2.36 (1.79, 3.10) 2.33 (1.73, 3.14)
 Unsure of strength or frequency 57 91 1.15 (0.81, 1.64) 1.01 (0.67, 1.52) 0.85 (0.53, 1.38)
 The same strength or frequency 390 717 1 1 1
  1. Adjusted and multivariable models adjusted for maternal age (6 groups), maternal BMI (continuous), maternal ethnicity (7 groups), parity (4 groups), maternal education (5 groups), marital status (yes/no), maternal pre-existing HTN, DM (yes/no), smoking status (yes/no), recreation drug use (yes/no), customised centile(6 groups), most recent going-to-sleep position (7 groups) and a stratification statement for study and site
  2. *Adjusted OR is a multivariable model with each individual foetal movement variable added alone
  3. **Multivariable model is a multivariable model including all foetal movement variables included in that column in the model. The individual frequency and strength variables are not included as they are accounted for in the combined variable, and uterine contractions were not included due to the lack of significance in the univariable analysis