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Table 1 Characteristics of MetS cases and controlsa in FAMILY

From: Metabolite profiles and the risk of metabolic syndrome in early childhood: a case-control study

Characteristic MetS caseb (n = 228) MetS control (n = 228) Overall (n = 456)
Age (years) 5.14 (0.28) 5.16 (0.29) 5.15 (0.29)
Sex (female) 115 (50.4%) 115 (50.4%) 230 (50.4%)
Daily night sleep (hours) 10.88 (0.65) 10.93 (0.61) 10.90 (0.63)
Physical activity (weighted daily minutes) 237 (71) 227 (71) 232 (71)
Diet quality Index − 0.82 (3.4) − 1.37 (3.45) − 1.1 (3.43)
Social disadvantage index
 Low (0–1) 164 (73.5%) 163 (75.1%) 327 (74.0%)
 Moderate (2–3) 43 (19.3%) 48 (22.1%) 91 (21.0%)
 High (4–5) 16 (7.2%) 6 (2.8%) 22 (5.0%)
Screen time exposure
 Low exposure (< 2 h) 53 (23.3%)* 71 (31.8%) 124 (28.0%)
 High exposure (≥ 2 h) 174 (76.7%)* 152 (68.2%) 326 (72.0%)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 101.30 (8.31)*** 97.37 (8.03) 99.33 (8.40)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 61.18 (5.44)*** 59.25 (5.42) 60.21 (5.51)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.13 (0.65) 4.07 (0.72) 4.10 (0.69)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.43 (0.32)* 1.37 (0.31) 1.40 (0.31)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.38 (0.61) 2.37 (0.63) 2.37 (0.62)
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 0.71 (0.31) 0.69 (0.29) 0.70 (0.30)
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 4.75 (0.38)*** 4.52 (0.31) 4.63 (0.37)
BMI (kg/m2) 16.66 (1.80)*** 15.13 (0.90) 15.89 (1.62)
BMI-for-age z-score (WHO) 0.84 (1.01)*** − 0.12 (0.64) 0.36 (0.97)
Waist circumference (cm) 53.43 (4.47)*** 49.97 (2.59) 51.70 (4.04)
Waist circumference-to-height 0.48 (0.04)*** 0.45 (0.02) 0.47 (0.03)
Sum of skinfolds (mm) 20.50 (6.78)*** 16.80 (4.14) 18.63 (5.91)
z-BMI ≥ 75th percentile AND waist circumference ≥ 90th percentile 45 (19.7%) 0 (0%) 45 (9.9%)
z-BMI ≥75th percentile AND median ≤ waist circumference < 90th percentile 89 (39.0%) 0 (0%) 89 (19.5%)
z-BMI ≥75th percentile AND systolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile 22 (9.7%) 0 (0%) 22 (4.8%)
Fasting glucose ≥ 90th percentile 70 (30.7%) 0 (0%) 70 (15.4%)
Maternal GDM 75 (32.9%) 0 (0%) 75 (16.4%)
  1. Values are presented as mean (SD) or n (%). aAge- and sex-matched 1:1 with control children. bStatistical comparisons between MetS cases and controls assuming equal (t test) or unequal variance (Welch’s t test) were performed as appropriate for continuous variables; Fisher exact tests were used for categorical variables. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001