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Table 1 BP group and covariates of participants in analyses

From: Different hypertension thresholds and cognitive decline: a pooled analysis of three ageing cohorts

Characteristic HRS (n = 6964)   ELSA (n = 5334)   CHARLS (n = 5292)  
Men (n = 2810) Women (n = 4154) P value* Men (n = 2338) Women (n = 2996) P value* Men (n = 2533) Women (n = 2759) P value*
Age (years) 66.4 ± 7.9 66.2 ± 8.0 0.420 62.2 ± 8.7 62.5 ± 9.1 0.202 59.4 ± 8.6 56.9 ± 8.8 < 0.001
White (%) 2376 (84.6) 3369 (81.1) < 0.001 2291 (98.0) 2946 (98.3) 0.355 0 (%) 0 (%)  
BP group (%)    < 0.001    < 0.001    < 0.001
 Normal 378 (13.5) 736 (17.7)   186 (8.0) 395 (13.2)   598 (23.6) 820 (29.7)  
 Borderline 700 (24.9) 1044 (25.1)   460 (19.7) 502 (16.8)   616 (24.3) 612 (22.2)  
 High 1732 (61.6) 2374 (57.1)   1692 (72.4) 2099 (70.1)   1319 (52.1) 1327 (48.1)  
BMI (kg/m2) 29.4 ± 4.8 29.5 ± 6.0 0.551 27.5 ± 3.8 27.5 ± 5.0 0.814 23.1 ± 3.5 24.2 ± 3.8 < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.4 ± 18.4 128.4 ± 19.7 < 0.001 141.9 ± 17.6 139.7 ± 20.2 < 0.001 129.9 ± 19.8 129.4 ± 21.4 0.313
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80.4 ± 11.1 79.4 ± 11.3 0.010 81.6 ± 11.3 74.8 ± 11.6 < 0.001 76.2 ± 12.2 75.5 ± 11.9 0.049
High level of education (%) 2326 (82.8) 3384 (81.5) 0.162 1043 (44.6) 832 (27.8) < 0.001 387 (15.3) 193 (7.0) < 0.001
Living alone (%) 457 (16.3) 1533 (36.9) < 0.001 491 (21.0) 1101 (36.7) < 0.001 206 (8.1) 326 (11.8) < 0.001
Current smoking (%) 344 (12.2) 473 (11.4) 0.276 333 (14.2) 489 (16.3) 0.037 1866 (73.7) 203 (7.4) < 0.001
Alcohol consumption (%) 1334 (47.5) 1233 (29.7) < 0.001 1740 (74.4) 1595 (53.2) < 0.001 1161 (45.8) 192 (7.0) < 0.001
Physically active (%) 2399 (85.4) 3161 (76.1) < 0.001 2027 (86.7) 2397 (80.0) < 0.001 786 (31.0) 843 (30.6) 0.708
Depressive symptoms (%) 231 (8.2) 603 (14.5) < 0.001 207 (8.9) 500 (16.7) < 0.001 461 (18.2) 797 (28.9) < 0.001
Taking antihypertension medication (%) 1982 (70.5) 2958 (71.2) 0.543 1203 (51.5) 1512 (50.5) 0.474 573 (25.6) 555 (23.6) 0.124
History of diseases          
 Hypertension (%) 1729 (61.5) 2502 (60.2) 0.276 797 (34.1) 1055 (35.2) 0.392 986 (38.9) 1081 (39.2) 0.85
 Diabetes (%) 522 (18.6) 671 (16.2) 0.008 165 (7.1) 129 (4.3) < 0.001 122 (4.8) 169 (6.1) 0.037
 Hypercholesterolemia (%) 1343 (47.8) 1656 (39.9) < 0.001 829 (35.5) 1132 (37.8) 0.08 384 (15.2) 463 (16.8) 0.108
 Heart disease (%) 682 (24.3) 707 (17.0) < 0.001 433 (18.5) 441 (14.7) < 0.001 235 (9.3) 344 (12.5) < 0.001
 Stroke (%) 128 (4.6) 133 (3.2) 0.004 63 (2.7) 75 (2.5) 0.662 47 (1.9) 38 (1.4) 0.167
 Cancer (%) 386 (13.7) 472 (11.4) 0.003 92 (3.9) 202 (6.7) < 0.001 17 (0.7) 28 (1.0) 0.174
 Chronic lung disease (%) 177 (6.3) 341 (8.2) 0.003 103 (4.4) 154 (5.1) 0.214 278 (11.0) 232 (8.4) 0.002
Cognitive scores          
 Memory 10.0 ± 3.1 10.9 ± 3.2 < 0.001 10.1 ± 3.2 10.5 ± 3.2 < 0.001 15.2 ± 4.7 15.0 ± 4.9 0.071
 Executive 7 (5–7) 6 (5–7) < 0.001 21.1 ± 6.3 20.3 ± 6.0 < 0.001 7 (5–8) 5 (3–8) < 0.001
 Orientation 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) < 0.001 4 (4–4) 4 (4–4) 0.003 4 (3–4) 3 (2–4) < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, n (%), or median (IQR)
  2. * P value for differences between men and women
  3. The executive scores are presented in different forms due to different assessment methods
  4. HRS, the Health and Retirement Study; ELSA, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; CHARLS, the China Health Retirement Longitudinal Study; BP, blood pressure; BMI, body mass index