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Table 2 Mean differences in rate of cognitive change (SD/year) during follow-up in men

From: Different hypertension thresholds and cognitive decline: a pooled analysis of three ageing cohorts

BP Group HRS (n = 2810) ELSA (n = 2338) CHARLS (n = 2533) Pooled analysis (n = 7681)
β (95% Cl)* P value β (95% Cl)* P value β (95% Cl)* P value Pooled β (95% Cl)* P value I2 (%) P value
Global           
 Normal −0.018 (− 0.032 to − 0.005) 0.008 0.005 (−0.012 to 0.023) 0.551 −0.003 (− 0.020 to 0.013) 0.687 − 0.006 (− 0.020 to 0.008) 0.377 58.3 0.091
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.015 (−0.024 to − 0.005) 0.002 −0.003 (− 0.013 to 0.008) 0.626 −0.016 (− 0.030 to − 0.002) 0.025 −0.011 (− 0.020 to − 0.002) 0.013 43.7 0.169
Memory           
 Normal −0.008 (−0.018 to 0.002) 0.097 0.010 (− 0.002 to 0.021) 0.099 −0.013 (− 0.034 to 0.009) 0.257 −0.003 (− 0.016 to 0.011) 0.715 69.2 0.039
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.006 (− 0.013 to 0.001) 0.076 −0.001 (− 0.008 to 0.006) 0.852 −0.018 (− 0.036 to 0.001) 0.060 −0.005 (− 0.012 to 0.002) 0.138 40.7 0.185
Executive function           
 Normal −0.008 (− 0.018 to 0.002) 0.107 0.007 (−0.005 to 0.019) 0.276 −0.001 (− 0.017 to 0.015) 0.902 −0.001 (− 0.011 to 0.008) 0.777 42.2 0.177
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.003 (− 0.010 to 0.004) 0.404 −0.006 (− 0.014 to 0.001) 0.108 −0.012 (− 0.025 to 0.002) 0.101 −0.005 (− 0.010 to 0.000) 0.031 0.0 0.513
Orientation           
 Normal −0.021 (− 0.039 to − 0.003) 0.025 −0.004 (− 0.025 to 0.016) 0.677 0.011 (−0.006 to 0.029) 0.210 −0.005 (− 0.024 to 0.015) 0.640 67.6 0.046
 Borderline Reference / Reference / Reference / Reference / / /
 High −0.019 (− 0.032 to − 0.007) 0.003 0.004 (−0.009 to 0.016) 0.573 0.002 (−0.013 to 0.017) 0.749 −0.005 (− 0.020 to 0.011) 0.550 73.6 0.023
  1. * After adjusting for age, race (except for the CHARLS), body mass index, education, cohabitation status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, depressive symptoms, antihypertension medication, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and chronic lung disease
  2. BP, blood pressure; HRS, the Health and Retirement Study; ELSA, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; CHARLS, the China Health Retirement Longitudinal Study