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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level status (N = 367,612)

From: Modest alcohol intake and mortality in individuals with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels: a nationwide cohort study

  Normal (281,735)
N (%)
Elevated (85,877)
N (%)
p value
Age, years 52.5 (11.1) 52.2 (10.1) < 0.01
Sex, male 128,266 (45.5) 44,021 (51.3) < 0.01
BMI, kg/m2 23.5 (6.6) 25.4 (3.3) < 0.01
Waist circumference, cm 79.6 (8.6) 84.6 (9.0) < 0.01
Creatinine 1.0 (1.1) 1.0 (1.0) 0.83
GGT, U/L 20 (14-32) 41 (25-75) < 0.01
AST, U/L 27.8 (8.5) 37.1 (23.6) < 0.01
Charlson comorbidity index 0 (0–1) 0 (0–1) < 0.01
Diabetes 30,807 (10.9) 16,209 (18.9) < 0.01
Hypertension 84,112 (29.9) 35,053 (40.8) < 0.01
Hyperlipidemia 111,175 (39.5) 52,561 (61.2) < 0.01
Alcohol amount    < 0.01
 None 165,552 (58.8) 49,312 (57.4)  
 Light 70,075 (24.9) 19,404 (22.6)  
 Moderate 46,108 (16.4) 17,161 (20.0)  
Smoking status    < 0.01
 Never 183,564 (65.2) 51,571 (60.1)  
 Ever 97,720 (34.7) 34,221 (39.8)  
 Unknown 451 (0.2) 85 (0.1)  
Residential area    < 0.01
 Metropolitan 181,399 (64.4) 54,553 (63.5)  
 Rural 97,373 (34.6) 30,437 (35.4)  
 Unknown 2963 (1.1) 887 (1.0)  
Income percentile    < 0.01
 ≤30th 66,944 (23.8) 19,454 (22.7)  
 >30th–≤70th 94,719 (33.6) 30,008 (34.9)  
 >70th 117,626 (41.8) 35,639 (41.5)  
 Unknown 2446 (0.9) 776 (0.9)  
  1. Abbreviation: AST aspartate aminotransferase, BMI body mass index, GGT gamma-glutamyl transferase
  2. Normal: < 34 U/L for men and < 25 U/L for women; elevated: ≥34 U/L for men and ≥25 U/L for women
  3. Values are presented as n (%) for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables