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Table 1 Summary of participant characteristics and sample collection protocols for each study, from which data was collected to model viral load dynamics

From: Modelling upper respiratory viral load dynamics of SARS-CoV-2

Study

Reference

No. of patients

Country

Healthcare setting

Recruitment period

Age, years

Median (IQR)

Non-Caucasian ethnicity, n (%)

Male, n (%)

Remdesivir therapy, n (%)

WHO Severity score, Range

Mortality, n (%)

No. of samples, n

Method of sample collection

No. of samples used for modelling

Units†

1

Kim JY et al., J Korean Med Sci, 2020 [34]

2

Korea

Hospital

January 2020

35 (10–50)

2(100)

1 (50)

0

3–4

0

26

Clinical

13

3

2

Lui G et al., J Infect, 2020 [35]

11

Hong Kong

Multicentre, Hospital

February 2020

58 (42–70)

NK

7(64)

0

3–6/7

0

73

Research protocol

34

3

3

Scott S et al., Clin Infect Dis, 2020 [36]

1

USA

Community

January 2020

26

NK

1(100)

0

2

0

12

Research protocol

6

1

4

Kim SE, Int J Infect Dis, 2020 [37]

3

Korea

Tertiary Hospital

February–April 2020

30 (25–30)

NK

2 (67)

0

3

0

21

Research protocol

21

1

5

Gautret P et al., Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2020 [38]

19

France

Tertiary Hospital

March 2020

49 (36.5–57)

NK

9 (47)

0

3–6/7

0

126

Research protocol

125

1

6

Young B et al., JAMA, 2020 [39]

18

Singapore

Multicentre, Tertiary Hospital

January–February 2020

47 (31–73*)

16 (89)

9 (50)

0

3–6/7

0

216

Research protocol

160

1

7

The COVID–19 Investigation team, Nat Med, 2020 [40]

12

USA

Multicentre, Community and Hospital

January 2020

53 (21–68*)

NK

8 (67)

3 (25)

2–5

0

121

Clinical

69

1

8

Wölfel R et al., Nature, 2020 [41]

9

Germany

Hospital

January 2020

41 (33–49)

NK

9 (100)

NK

3–4

0

96

Research protocol

79

3

9

Vetter P et al., mSphere, 2020 [42]

5

Switzerland

Hospital

February 2020

28 (24–55)

NK

5 (100)

0

2–4**

0

39

Research protocol

37

3

10

Lavezzo E et al., Nature, 2020 [43]

37

Italy

Community and Hospital

February–March 2020

65 (55–75)

NK

22 (59)

NK

2–10

3 (8)

55

Research protocol

6

3

11

Xu Y et al., Nat Med, 2020 [44]

6

China

Paediatric cohort, Tertiary Hospital

January–February 2020

6 (4–11)

NK

3 (50)

0

3

0

37

Research protocol

34

1

12

Shrestha N et al., Clin Infect Dis, 2020 [45]

230

USA

Healthcare worker cohort, non–hospitalised

March–April 2020

36 (29–51)

70 (30)

59 (26)

0

2

0

528

Clinical

46

2

13

Fajnzylber J et al., Nat Commun, 2020 [4]

64

USA

Multicentre, Tertiary Hospital

NK

56 (42–69)

76(43)

40 (63)

16 (25)

2–10

8 (13)

93

Research Protocol

0

3

14

Yilmaz A et al., J Infec Dis, 2020 [46]

54

Sweden

Tertiary Hospital

February–April 2020

50.5 (36-58)

NK

31(57)

NK

2–10

3 (5)

349

Research Protocol

137

2

15

Alsharrah et al., J Med Virol, 2020 [47]

29

Kuwait

Paediatric cohort, Tertiary Hospital

February–April 2020

8.8 (4.7–12.4)

NK

16 (55)

0

3

0

75

Clinical

9

1

16

Tan A et al., Cell Reports, 2020 [7]

12

Singapore

Tertiary Hospital

NK

52.5 (32–65)

10 (83)

6(50)

NK

3–10

1 (8)

82

Research Protocol

53

1

17

Salvatore PP et al., Clin Infec Dis, 2020 [48]

93

USA

Community

March–May 2020

37 (21–53)

24 (22)

43 (46)

0

2

0

223

Research Protocol

41

1

Total

-

605

-

-

-

42 (28–56)

-

271 (45)

-

2-10

15 (2)

2172

-

870

-

  1. Only cases of symptomatic COVID-19 were included
  2. Hospital = non-tertiary hospital or hospital for which the tertiary status has not been reported by the authors
  3. NK not known
  4. *Value expressed as median (range)
  5. **All cases hospitalised due to public health policy at the time of the study
  6. †1: Cycle threshold values; 2: Viral load calculated either by using the study’s own conversion formula for Ct value to viral load or a standard curve calibrated to other samples (e.g. viral load in plasma); 3: Viral load calculated from standard curve run with each sample
  7. Models fitted to data from subjects for whom at least 3 samples were taken in the first 15 days after symptom onset