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Table 1 Summary of participant characteristics and sample collection protocols for each study, from which data was collected to model viral load dynamics

From: Modelling upper respiratory viral load dynamics of SARS-CoV-2

Study Reference No. of patients Country Healthcare setting Recruitment period Age, years
Median (IQR)
Non-Caucasian ethnicity, n (%) Male, n (%) Remdesivir therapy, n (%) WHO Severity score, Range Mortality, n (%) No. of samples, n Method of sample collection No. of samples used for modelling Units†
1 Kim JY et al., J Korean Med Sci, 2020 [34] 2 Korea Hospital January 2020 35 (10–50) 2(100) 1 (50) 0 3–4 0 26 Clinical 13 3
2 Lui G et al., J Infect, 2020 [35] 11 Hong Kong Multicentre, Hospital February 2020 58 (42–70) NK 7(64) 0 3–6/7 0 73 Research protocol 34 3
3 Scott S et al., Clin Infect Dis, 2020 [36] 1 USA Community January 2020 26 NK 1(100) 0 2 0 12 Research protocol 6 1
4 Kim SE, Int J Infect Dis, 2020 [37] 3 Korea Tertiary Hospital February–April 2020 30 (25–30) NK 2 (67) 0 3 0 21 Research protocol 21 1
5 Gautret P et al., Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2020 [38] 19 France Tertiary Hospital March 2020 49 (36.5–57) NK 9 (47) 0 3–6/7 0 126 Research protocol 125 1
6 Young B et al., JAMA, 2020 [39] 18 Singapore Multicentre, Tertiary Hospital January–February 2020 47 (31–73*) 16 (89) 9 (50) 0 3–6/7 0 216 Research protocol 160 1
7 The COVID–19 Investigation team, Nat Med, 2020 [40] 12 USA Multicentre, Community and Hospital January 2020 53 (21–68*) NK 8 (67) 3 (25) 2–5 0 121 Clinical 69 1
8 Wölfel R et al., Nature, 2020 [41] 9 Germany Hospital January 2020 41 (33–49) NK 9 (100) NK 3–4 0 96 Research protocol 79 3
9 Vetter P et al., mSphere, 2020 [42] 5 Switzerland Hospital February 2020 28 (24–55) NK 5 (100) 0 2–4** 0 39 Research protocol 37 3
10 Lavezzo E et al., Nature, 2020 [43] 37 Italy Community and Hospital February–March 2020 65 (55–75) NK 22 (59) NK 2–10 3 (8) 55 Research protocol 6 3
11 Xu Y et al., Nat Med, 2020 [44] 6 China Paediatric cohort, Tertiary Hospital January–February 2020 6 (4–11) NK 3 (50) 0 3 0 37 Research protocol 34 1
12 Shrestha N et al., Clin Infect Dis, 2020 [45] 230 USA Healthcare worker cohort, non–hospitalised March–April 2020 36 (29–51) 70 (30) 59 (26) 0 2 0 528 Clinical 46 2
13 Fajnzylber J et al., Nat Commun, 2020 [4] 64 USA Multicentre, Tertiary Hospital NK 56 (42–69) 76(43) 40 (63) 16 (25) 2–10 8 (13) 93 Research Protocol 0 3
14 Yilmaz A et al., J Infec Dis, 2020 [46] 54 Sweden Tertiary Hospital February–April 2020 50.5 (36-58) NK 31(57) NK 2–10 3 (5) 349 Research Protocol 137 2
15 Alsharrah et al., J Med Virol, 2020 [47] 29 Kuwait Paediatric cohort, Tertiary Hospital February–April 2020 8.8 (4.7–12.4) NK 16 (55) 0 3 0 75 Clinical 9 1
16 Tan A et al., Cell Reports, 2020 [7] 12 Singapore Tertiary Hospital NK 52.5 (32–65) 10 (83) 6(50) NK 3–10 1 (8) 82 Research Protocol 53 1
17 Salvatore PP et al., Clin Infec Dis, 2020 [48] 93 USA Community March–May 2020 37 (21–53) 24 (22) 43 (46) 0 2 0 223 Research Protocol 41 1
Total - 605 - - - 42 (28–56) - 271 (45) - 2-10 15 (2) 2172 - 870 -
  1. Only cases of symptomatic COVID-19 were included
  2. Hospital = non-tertiary hospital or hospital for which the tertiary status has not been reported by the authors
  3. NK not known
  4. *Value expressed as median (range)
  5. **All cases hospitalised due to public health policy at the time of the study
  6. †1: Cycle threshold values; 2: Viral load calculated either by using the study’s own conversion formula for Ct value to viral load or a standard curve calibrated to other samples (e.g. viral load in plasma); 3: Viral load calculated from standard curve run with each sample
  7. Models fitted to data from subjects for whom at least 3 samples were taken in the first 15 days after symptom onset