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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in individuals with type 2 diabetes and pre-existing cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease

From: Lifetime risk of cardiovascular-renal disease in type 2 diabetes: a population-based study in 473,399 individuals

  All T2D CVRD free HF only CKD only MI only Stroke only PAD only Multiple CVRD
   473,399 276,941 5310 35,019 2721 17,044 5898 126,615
Follow-up (years) Median [IQR] 6 [3 , 9] 6 [3 , 10] 4 [2 , 8] 5 [3 , 9] 6 [3 , 10] 5 [3 , 9] 6 [3 , 10] 5 [3 , 9]
Age (years) Mean (SD) 63.5 (14.4) 58.3 (13.7) 70.2 (13.4) 71.8 (12.2) 67.3 (12.4) 69.3 (12.6) 68.4 (11.1) 70.9 (11.71)
Female N (%) 216,273 (45.7%) 128,516 (46.4%) 2542 (47.9%) 20,411 (58.3%) 813 (29.9%) 7760 (45.5%) 2147 (36.4%) 51,891 (41.0%)
BMI Mean (SD) 31.5 (6.9) 32.1 (7.0) 32.7 (8.1) 30.8 (6.7) 30.6 (6.2) 30.2 (6.4) 29.9 (6.3) 30.7 (6.40)
Smoking status Never 69,360 (19.7%) 40,209 (20.5%) 765 (19.1%) 6178 (23.4%) 326 (16.3%) 2333 (18.3%) 633 (12.4%) 18,348 (17.9%)
  Former 162,659 (46.3%) 82,255 (42.0%) 2083 (51.9%) 12,539 (47.5%) 1054 (52.8%) 6056 (47.6%) 2364 (46.3%) 54,739 (53.3%)
  Current 119,532 (34.0%) 73,296 (37.4%) 1162 (29.0%) 7658 (29.0%) 618 (30.9%) 4325 (34.0%) 2109 (41.3%) 29,675 (28.9%)
HbA1c Category < 7% 131,242 (50.8%) 66,677 (48.4%) 1471 (51.9%) 12,527 (55.8%) 731 (50.0%) 4931 (54.4%) 1757 (46.8%) 41,950 (53.1%)
  7-10% 105,662 (40.9%) 56,517 (41.1%) 1148 (40.5%) 8750 (39.0%) 627 (42.9%) 3557 (39.3%) 1683 (44.8%) 32,490 (41.1%)
  > 10% 21,574 (8.3%) 14,451 (10.5%) 213 (7.5%) 1161 (5.2%) 103 (7.0%) 570 (6.3%) 313 (8.3%) 4604 (5.8%)
SBP (mmHg) < 130 142,824 (32.2%) 79,050 (30.8%) 1944 (39.1%) 9947 (29.7%) 756 (31.7%) 4890 (31.0%) 1487 (26.7%) 43,201 (35.8%)
  130–150 224,531 (50.7%) 131,672 (51.3%) 2256 (45.3%) 17,648 (52.7%) 1241 (52.0%) 8191 (51.9%) 2919 (52.4%) 59,054 (48.9%)
  150+ 75,840 (17.1%) 45,956 (17.9%) 775 (15.6%) 5894 (17.6%) 391 (16.4%) 2707 (17.1%) 1165 (20.9%) 18,437 (15.3%)
DBP (mmHg) < 80 221,401 (50.0%) 106,627 (41.5%) 2858 (57.4%) 19,960 (59.6%) 1335 (55.9%) 8489 (53.8%) 3259 (58.5%) 76,401 (63.3%)
  80–100 206,329 (46.6%) 138,113 (53.8%) 1962 (39.4%) 12,820 (38.3%) 1012 (42.4%) 6899 (43.7%) 2205 (39.6%) 42,248 (35.0%)
  100+ 15,412 (3.5%) 11,906 (4.6%) 156 (3.1%) 710 (2.1%) 42 (1.8%) 400 (2.5%) 107 (1.9%) 2019 (1.7%)
Atrial fibrillation N (%) 32,972 (7.0%) 6392 (2.3%) 1884 (35.5%) 2321 (6.6%) 206 (7.6%) 1739 (10.2%) 354 (6.0%) 18,569 (14.7%)
HDL (mmol/L) Mean (SD) 1.2 (0.37) 1.2 (0.36) 1.3 (0.38) 1.3 (0.39) 1.2 (0.35) 1.3 (0.38) 1.2 (0.37) 1.2 (0.37)
LDL (mmol/L) Mean (SD) 2.7 (1.03) 2.9 (1.02) 2.6 (0.94) 2.6 (0.99) 2.4 (0.96) 2.4 (0.95) 2.5 (1.02) 2.3 (0.94)
Triglyceride (mmol/L) Median (IQR) 1.7 [1.2 , 2.4] 1.8 [1.2 , 2.5] 1.6 [1.1 , 2.3] 1.7 [1.2 , 2.3] 1.6 [1.1 , 2.4] 1.6 [1.1 , 2.3] 1.7 [1.2 , 2.5] 2.0 (1.29)
Physical activity Inactive 83,736 (43.0%) 39,805 (36.8%) 1083 (52.1%) 6565 (47.4%) 388 (37.7%) 3424 (50.6%) 1166 (49.8%) 30,344 (51.5%)
  Moderately inactive 17,637 (9.1%) 11,148 (10.3%) 193 (9.3%) 1272 (9.2%) 84 (8.2%) 530 (7.8%) 149 (6.4%) 4144 (7.0%)
  Moderately active 70,060 (36.0%) 41,557 (38.4%) 606 (29.1%) 4502 (32.5%) 451 (43.8%) 2159 (31.9%) 798 (34.1%) 19,655 (33.4%)
  Active 23,315 (12.0%) 15,750 (14.5%) 198 (9.5%) 1503 (10.9%) 106 (10.3%) 655 (9.7%) 227 (9.7%) 4787 (8.1%)
CVD risk treatment         
 Low dose aspirin 29.0% 14.2% 25.1% 27.5% 50.2% 45.1% 49.8% 58.4%
 Statins 53.1% 40.4% 48.7% 58.9% 64.2% 68.5% 69.5% 76.5%
 Anti-hypertensive medications: 55.6% 43.1% 73.2% 73.0% 59.5% 63.9% 62.2% 75.5%
  ACE inhibitors 34.7% 26.0% 51.7% 44.2% 40.9% 39.5% 38.7% 48.9%
  ARBs 13.1% 9.3% 17.7% 20.9% 13.0% 13.2% 12.6% 18.7%
  Calcium channel blockers 26.3% 20.1% 25.0% 35.9% 22.6% 33.4% 33.2% 36.0%
  Beta blockers 23.0% 11.1% 41.0% 23.3% 40.1% 19.8% 13.7% 48.2%
  Potassium-sparing diuretics 3.6% 1.2% 19.4% 3.5% 2.5% 2.1% 2.1% 7.8%
  Loop diuretics 12.7% 4.2% 55.5% 15.6% 9.5% 10.1% 9.7% 27.6%
  Thiazides 13.9% 12.5% 10.8% 22.7% 11.9% 18.5% 18.4% 14.0%
 Warfarin 5.2% 1.7% 26.0% 4.9% 5.7% 7.6% 6.7% 10.9%
 P2Y12 inhibitors 4.8% 0.4% 1.5% 1.1% 7.0% 14.8% 8.3% 14.1%
 Other antiplatelets 26.2% 12.7% 22.4% 24.7% 45.2% 42.5% 44.4% 53.1%
 Corticosteroids 19.9% 16.8% 25.6% 22.2% 15.6% 20.4% 20.6% 25.4%
 Any CVD risk treatment 71.4% 59.6% 83.9% 84.8% 76.5% 83.7% 84.7% 90.0%
Glucose-lowering treatment         
 SGLT-2 inhibitors 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.5% 0.1% 0.3% 0.2%
 Metformin 39.4% 39.8% 36.3% 38.9% 39.6% 38.1% 45.6% 39.0%
 Sulfonylurea 15.5% 12.6% 15.7% 22.0% 16.1% 16.1% 22.1% 19.5%
 DPP-4 inhibitors 1.9% 1.6% 1.6% 2.9% 1.8% 1.5% 1.8% 2.2%
 GLP-1RA 0.5% 0.5% 0.7% 0.5% 0.6% 0.3% 0.7% 0.5%
 Metiglinides 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3%
 Glitazones 4.9% 4.5% 3.5% 7.0% 5.3% 4.2% 7.5% 5.3%
 Acarbose 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3%
 Insulins 7.2% 4.8% 5.9% 10.5% 7.3% 6.0% 12.1% 11.3%
  1. Abbreviations: ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARBs angiotensin II receptor blockers, BMI body mass index, CVD cardiovascular disease, DBP diastolic blood pressure, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor antagonist, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HF heart failure, HDL high-density lipoprotein, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, HDL low-density lipoprotein, MI myocardial infarction, MARCE major adverse renal cardiovascular events, PAD peripheral artery disease, P2Y12 platelet adenosine diphosphate receptor, SGLT2 sodium-glucose transport protein-2, SBP systolic blood pressure