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Table 3 Multivariate analysis of overall survival after stepwise backward elimination methoda

From: Circulating tumor cell gene expression and plasma AR gene copy number as biomarkers for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with cabazitaxel

  HR (95% CI) p
EPCAM
 Not expressed 1.00  
 Expressed 3.22 (1.68–6.17) 0.0004
HPRT1
 Not expressed 1.00  
 Expressed 2.23 (1.22–4.07) 0.009
AR CN
 Normal 1.00  
 Gain 2.18 (1.22–3.87) 0.008
ECOG PS
 0–1 1.00  
 2 2.85 (1.52–5.34) 0.001
Liver mts
 No 1.00  
 Yes 3.30 (1.20–9.13) 0.021
PSA (continuous variable) 1.01 (1.00–1.01) < 0.0001
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, mts metastases, ECOG PS Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, PSA prostate-specific antigen
  2. aThis method allowed us to insert all the independent statistically significant variables at univariate analysis into the model first. Each variable was deleted one at a time if they did not contribute to the regression equation. Variables were deleted based on their statistical contribution. After the application of the stepwise backward elimination method, only EPCAM, HPRT1, AR CN, ECOG PS, liver metastases, and PSA remained independent prognostic factors at multivariate analysis