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Table 2 Taxa regulated by inulin and/or PA in the gut microbiota of obese individuals

From: Physical activity enhances the improvement of body mass index and metabolism by inulin: a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial performed in obese individuals

Mean ± SEM (within groups: Wilcoxon matched pair tests) P-value
  MAL ↓PA MAL - ↑PA INU ↓PA INU - ↑PA
  Baseline Month 3 Change Baseline Month 3 Change Baseline Month 3 Change Baseline Month 3 Change
Phyla
Actinobacteria 0.987 ± 0.199 2.057 ± 0.947 1.07 ± 0.834ab 1.433 ± 0.258 1.333 ± 0.302 − 0.1 ± 0.329b 2.394 ± 0.896 3.096 ± 0.593 0.702 ± 1.097ab 1.458 ± 0.421 5.234 ± 1.641 *† 3.776 ± 1.385a 0.003†
Family
 Bifidobacteriaceae 0.397 ± 0.115 0.982 ± 0.489 0.585 ± 0.431ab 0.725 ± 0.138 0.713 ± 0.227 − 0.012 ± 0.257a 1.699 ± 0.83 2.33 ± 0.463 0.63 ± 1.034bc 0.565 ± 0.299 4.423 ± 1.445 *† 3.858 ± 1.462c < 0.001†
 Clostridiaceae 0.011 ± 0.007 0.063 ± 0.054 0.052 ± 0.056 0.909 ± 0.775 0.1 ± 0.042 * − 0.809 ± 0.748 0.077 ± 0.039 0.056 ± 0.026 − 0.021 ± 0.041 0.066 ± 0.032 0.017 ± 0.015 * − 0.048 ± 0.025 ns
 Erysipelotrichaceae 0.935 ± 0.17 0.879 ± 0.189 − 0.056 ± 0.238 0.346 ± 0.112 0.337 ± 0.073 − 0.009 ± 0.103 0.671 ± 0.172 1.063 ± 0.259 * 0.392 ± 0.135 1.036 ± 0.331 1.717 ± 0.525 0.681 ± 0.316 0.044
 Lachnospiraceae 19.591 ± 2.381 18.97 ± 2.436 − 0.621 ± 2.025 19.775 ± 1.652 15.669 ± 1.659 * − 4.106 ± 1.452 18.613 ± 1.949 16.92 ± 1.491 − 1.693 ± 1.486 19.985 ± 1.725 17.657 ± 1.498 − 2.328 ± 1.852 ns
 Oxalobacteraceae 0.066 ± 0.024 0.053 ± 0.017 − 0.013 ± 0.017a 0.035 ± 0.014 0.052 ± 0.019 0.017 ± 0.01b 0.034 ± 0.014 0.023 ± 0.009 − 0.011 ± 0.006a 0.03 ± 0.014 0.01 ± 0.006 − 0.019 ± 0.014a 0.005
 Peptostreptococcaceae 0.106 ± 0.041 0.045 ± 0.028 * − 0.061 ± 0.026 0.07 ± 0.022 0.609 ± 0.528 0.539 ± 0.531 0.103 ± 0.029 0.098 ± 0.049 − 0.005 ± 0.055 0.11 ± 0.051 0.051 ± 0.014 − 0.06 ± 0.045 ns
 Ruminococcaceae 23.136 ± 1.695 24.655 ± 2.56 1.518 ± 2.27 19.294 ± 1.486 21.755 ± 1.866 * 2.461 ± 1.1 15.651 ± 1.605 18.408 ± 2.371 2.758 ± 1.828 15.978 ± 2.223 16.965 ± 1.876 0.986 ± 1.618 ns
 Veillonellaceae 0.441 ± 0.141 0.311 ± 0.122 − 0.13 ± 0.113 1.526 ± 0.936 1.147 ± 0.478 − 0.38 ± 1.016 1.994 ± 0.921 2.267 ± 0.882 0.273 ± 0.681 1.544 ± 0.841 1.599 ± 0.63 * 0.055 ± 0.3 ns
Genus
Anaerostipes 0.139 ± 0.038 0.145 ± 0.042 0.007 ± 0.04 0.165 ± 0.056 0.126 ± 0.025 − 0.039 ± 0.065 0.126 ± 0.069 0.504 ± 0.198 * 0.378 ± 0.146 0.129 ± 0.047 0.639 ± 0.27 * 0.51 ± 0.246 0.046
Bifidobacterium 0.397 ± 0.115 0.982 ± 0.489 0.585 ± 0.431ab 0.725 ± 0.138 0.712 ± 0.227 − 0.013 ± 0.257a 1.699 ± 0.83 2.328 ± 0.462 0.629 ± 1.034bc 0.565 ± 0.299 4.423 ± 1.445 *† 3.859 ± 1.462c < 0.001†
Catenibacterium 0.357 ± 0.189 0.129 ± 0.07 − 0.228 ± 0.128a 0.023 ± 0.022 0.035 ± 0.032 0.012 ± 0.01ab 0.066 ± 0.037 0.174 ± 0.101 0.108 ± 0.073b 0.142 ± 0.073 0.301 ± 0.129 * 0.159 ± 0.061b < 0.001†
Clostridium sensu stricto 0.011 ± 0.007 0.063 ± 0.054 0.052 ± 0.056 0.909 ± 0.775 0.1 ± 0.042 * − 0.809 ± 0.748 0.077 ± 0.039 0.056 ± 0.026 − 0.021 ± 0.041 0.066 ± 0.032 0.017 ± 0.015 * − 0.048 ± 0.025 ns
Clostridium IV 1.923 ± 0.561 1.136 ± 0.342 − 0.787 ± 0.359b 1.061 ± 0.217 1.505 ± 0.306 * 0.444 ± 0.18a 0.586 ± 0.098 1.139 ± 0.4 0.554 ± 0.396ab 1.194 ± 0.297 1.014 ± 0.324 − 0.18 ± 0.393b 0.006
Dialister 0.253 ± 0.117 0.156 ± 0.091 − 0.097 ± 0.102 0.1 ± 0.061 0.092 ± 0.059 − 0.008 ± 0.016 0.072 ± 0.036 0.172 ± 0.069 0.099 ± 0.058 0.137 ± 0.092 0.263 ± 0.12 * 0.126 ± 0.046 ns
Escherichia Shigella 0.519 ± 0.299 * 0.237 ± 0.144 − 0.282 ± 0.163 0.472 ± 0.164 0.69 ± 0.409 0.218 ± 0.458 0.372 ± 0.155 0.979 ± 0.786 0.607 ± 0.82 0.708 ± 0.36 0.568 ± 0.293 − 0.14 ± 0.385 ns
Holdemanella 0.248 ± 0.079 0.287 ± 0.114 0.039 ± 0.089 0.071 ± 0.028 0.138 ± 0.057 * 0.067 ± 0.044 0.47 ± 0.173 0.749 ± 0.246 0.278 ± 0.123 0.734 ± 0.346 1.203 ± 0.5 0.469 ± 0.255 ns
Odoribacter 1.625 ± 0.382 1.26 ± 0.293 − 0.364 ± 0.257 1.386 ± 0.151 2.241 ± 0.535 * 0.856 ± 0.532 1.408 ± 0.223 1.264 ± 0.254 − 0.143 ± 0.208 1.609 ± 0.294 1.333 ± 0.27 − 0.276 ± 0.376 ns
Roseburia 3.311 ± 1.293 2.455 ± 0.525 − 0.856 ± 1.25 2.879 ± 0.574 2.305 ± 0.662 − 0.574 ± 0.683 3.197 ± 0.636 1.822 ± 0.631 * − 1.375 ± 0.853 2.116 ± 0.619 1.151 ± 0.188 − 0.966 ± 0.583 ns
Ruminococcus 0.444 ± 0.188 1.448 ± 0.535 1.005 ± 0.587a 0.989 ± 0.424 1.527 ± 0.553 * 0.538 ± 0.383a 0.749 ± 0.268 1.159 ± 0.424 0.41 ± 0.237a 0.674 ± 0.217 0.272 ± 0.086 − 0.403 ± 0.194b 0.019
  1. Values refer to the relative abundances of taxa significantly regulated during the intervention. A Wilcoxon matched pair was performed for evaluating differences within groups (3 months versus baseline). Significant results for Wilcoxon test are indicated in bold, *p < 0.05, †q < 0.05 (FDR correction). A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for comparisons in the change of relative abundances during the protocol, between all groups. p-value are indicated when p < 0.05, †q < 0.05 (FDR correction). For between comparisons, a different letter was attributed when the variations between groups are significant. MAL ↓PA = placebo group: n = 11; MAL ↑PA = placebo group with increased PA: n = 19, INU ↓PA = prebiotic group: n = 16 and INU ↑PA = inulin group with increased PA: n = 13