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Table 2 Fetal assessment of the study population

From: The association between assisted reproductive technology and cardiac remodeling in fetuses and early infants: a prospective cohort study

Characteristics SC (n = 85) ART (n = 88) P Adjusted P*
Gestational age at scan (week) 29.7 (28.7, 31.3) 29.7 (29.0, 30.8) 0.904 -
Estimated fetal weight (g) 1460 (1265, 1733) 1462 (1293, 1689) 0.683 -
Placental data
 Middle cerebral artery PI 1.98±0.31 1.90±0.32 0.080 0.013
 Umbilical artery PI 1.04±0.17 1.03±0.16 0.565 0.736
 Cerebroplacental ratio 1.89 (1.71, 2.12) 1.84 (1.62, 2.05) 0.332 0.080
 Aortic isthmus PI 2.68±0.35 2.68±0.35 0.940 0.925
 Ductus venosus PI 0.54 (0.45, 0.69) 0.55 (0.47, 0.73) 0.591 0.629
 Mean uterine artery PI 0.85±0.21 0.74±0.20 0.001 0.010
Cardiac morphometry
 Left atrial area (mm2) 167.99±35.70 166.49±30.26 0.767 0.819
 Right atrial area (mm2) 173.73±31.48 175.14±32.53 0.772 0.608
 LV area (mm2) 244.25±47.13 262.33±45.96 0.011 0.002
 RV area (mm2) 221.14±42.60 236.10±38.63 0.016 0.003
 LVSI mid 2.45±0.39 2.29±0.34 0.003 0.006
 LVSI base 2.50±0.40 2.41±0.34 0.081 0.276
 RVSI mid 2.12 (1.97, 2.41) 2.15±0.32 0.229 0.326
 RVSI base 2.11±0.28 2.16±0.26 0.229 0.187
 Relative LV wall thickness 0.36±0.05 0.35±0.04 0.035 0.074
 Relative interventricular septal thickness 0.37±0.06 0.36±0.05 0.134 0.347
 Relative RV wall thickness 0.34±0.05 0.34±0.05 0.715 0.833
 Cardiothoracic ratio 0.29 (0.27, 0.32) 0.29±0.03 0.044 0.051
Systolic function
 LVEF (%) 63.43±5.22 63.46±4.43 0.963 0.435
 RVEF (%) 58.61±6.22 60.00 (55.95, 62.58) 0.995 0.915
 Left stroke volume (ml) 2.46±0.71 2.25 (1.78, 3.06) 0.923 0.991
 Right stroke volume (ml) 3.58 (3.01, 3.94) 3.69±0.95 0.702 0.564
 Left cardiac output (ml/min) 352.25±97.65 328.69 (253.64, 419.31) 0.639 0.727
 Right cardiac output (ml/min) 528.57 (446.15, 574.26) 537.22±131.70 0.738 0.548
 Mitral ring displacement (mm) 6.75±1.81 5.69 (4.49, 7.79) 0.025 0.111
 Tricuspid ring displacement (mm) 8.30±1.81 7.17 (6.25, 9.16) 0.012 0.105
 Mitral S′ (cm/s) 5.74±0.82 5.80 (5.13, 6.29) 0.645 0.760
 Tricuspid S′ (cm/s) 6.29 (5.71, 6.96) 6.09 (5.71, 6.77) 0.515 0.947
Diastolic function
 Mitral E/A 0.72±0.08 0.75±0.10 0.050 0.164
 Tricuspid E/A 0.73 (0.68, 0.79) 0.73 (0.67, 0.80) 0.891 0.668
 Mitral E deceleration time (ms) 40.00 (32.00, 48.00) 44.00 (32.00, 54.00) 0.548 0.362
 Tricuspid E deceleration time (ms) 28.00 (21.00, 36.00) 29.00 (22.00, 39.50) 0.784 0.806
 Mitral E′ (cm/s) 5.59±0.79 5.84±0.86 0.047 0.046
 Mitral A′ (cm/s) 8.35±1.69 8.19±1.64 0.521 0.334
 Tricuspid E′ (cm/s) 6.77 (5.61, 8.51) 6.68 (5.90, 8.49) 0.824 0.913
 Tricuspid A′ (cm/s) 11.04±1.81 10.88±2.42 0.627 0.652
 Left isovolumic relaxation time (ms) 48.16±9.44 45.89±8.57 0.098 0.138
Global cardiac function
 Left myocardial performance index 0.45±0.14 0.39 (0.31, 0.53) 0.725 0.478
 Right myocardial performance index 0.38±0.12 0.38±0.16 0.988 0.707
Deformation analysis
 Frame rate (fps) 97.0 (92.0, 103.5) 95.0 (89.3, 103.0) 0.113 -
 Heart rate (bpm) 145.1±7.1 144.2±6.5 0.379 0.181
 Systolic deformation
  LV GLS (%) −20.65±1.88 −19.56±1.90 <0.001 0.013
  LV GLS rate S (s-1) −3.58±0.39 −3.32±0.36 <0.001 0.023
  LV global longitudinal T2P strain (ms) 209.60±13.92 214.50±14.40 0.024 0.119
  LV GCS (%) −19.83±2.49 −18.56 (−20.35, −17.20) 0.031 0.260
  LV GCS rate S (s-1) −3.89±0.56 −3.70±0.54 0.026 0.195
  LV global circumferential T2P strain (ms) 208.72±12.95 206.91±12.90 0.359 0.794
  RV GLS (%) −21.58±3.64 −20.58±3.83 0.083 0.812
  RV GLS rate S (s-1) −3.41±0.76 −3.25±0.82 0.210 0.906
  RV global longitudinal T2P strain (ms) 196.00 (185.00, 217.50) 202.33±25.47 0.983 0.410
 Diastolic deformation
  LV GLS rate E (s-1) 3.22±0.47 3.16±0.44 0.383 0.623
  LV GLS rate A (s-1) 3.85±0.57 3.63±0.52 0.010 0.100
  LV GCS rate E (s-1) 3.53±0.51 3.37 (2.93, 3.72) 0.209 0.993
  LV GCS rate A (s-1) 3.46±0.67 3.17±0.59 0.004 0.165
  RV GLS rate E (s-1) 3.19±1.19 2.78 (2.08, 3.45) 0.203 0.235
  RV GLS rate A (s-1) 3.60 (2.93, 4.30) 3.78±1.32 0.899 0.936
 Dyssynchrony
  Longitudinal strain SDt18S (ms) 26.41±6.59 27.28±6.45 0.380 0.321
  Circumferential strain SDt18S (ms) 22.75 (17.62, 27.74) 24.13±6.97 0.595 0.493
  1. ART Pregnancy conceived by assisted reproductive technologies, GCS Global circumferential strain, GLS Global longitudinal strain, LV Left ventricle, LVEF Left ventricular ejection fraction, LVSI Left ventricular sphericity index, PI Pulsatility index, RV Right ventricle, RVEF Right ventricular ejection fraction, RVSI Right ventricular sphericity index, SC Spontaneous conception, SDt18S Standard deviation of the time to peak systolic strain of 18 segments, T2P Time to peak
  2. *P values calculated by linear regression adjusted for gestational age at scan, estimated fetal weight, parity, sex of offspring, gestational diabetes, and mean uterine artery PI. For LV/RV deformation parameters, P values were additionally adjusted for frame rate and LV or RV area. For placental data, P values were adjusted for gestational age at scan, estimated fetal weight, parity, sex of offspring, and gestational diabetes