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Table 4 MR-CAUSE analysis displaying that the sharing model has a significantly worse fit than the causal model for the association between ADHD and the outcomes education, income, TDI, as well as intelligence, respectively

From: The impact and causal directions for the associations between diagnosis of ADHD, socioeconomic status, and intelligence by use of a bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization design

Model 1a Model 2a Δ ELPDb s.e. Δ ELPD z-score p-value
Education (SNPs=1430)
 Null Sharing −6.9 2.2 −3.2 0.00072
 Null Causal −13.0 4 −3.3 0.00041
 Sharing Causal −6.4 1.8 −3.5 0.00023
Income (SNPs=1430)
 Null Sharing −3.1 1.5 −2.1 0.018
 Null Causal −8.2 3.6 −2.3 0.011
 Sharing Causal −5.1 2.1 −2.4 0.008
TDI (SNPs=1430)
 Null Sharing −5.2 2.2 −2.4 0.0092
 Null Causal −10.0 4.1 −2.5 0.007
 Sharing Causal −4.8 1.9 −2.5 0.0063
Intelligence (SNPs=1430)
 Null Sharing −0.91 0.77 −1.2 0.12
 Null Causal −4.60 2.7 −1.7 0.043
 Sharing Causal −3.70 1.9 −1.9 0.027
  1. aModel 1 and Model 2 refer to the models being compared (null, sharing, or causal)
  2. bModel fit is measured by Δ Expected Log Pointwise Posterior Density (ELPD); Negative values indicate that model 2 is a better fit