Skip to main content

Table 1 Settings in which the interpretation of AIC is problematic

From: Assessment of glycemia in chronic kidney disease

Effect on A1C Conditions
Falsely low Chronic blood loss; autoimmune hemolytic anemia; thrombotic microangiopathy; malignant hypertension; sickle cell anemia; thalassemia; certain hemoglobinopathies; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; intra-red cell alkalosis; hypertriglyceridemia; malaria; HIV; other chronic infections; hemodialysis
Falsely high Iron deficiency; vitamin B12 deficiency; persistence of fetal hemoglobin; intra-red cell acidosis; splenectomy; hyperbilirubinemia; alcoholism; smoking
Variable effects Chronic kidney disease; pregnancy; certain hemoglobin variants; methemoglobin; recent blood transfusion; cancer; chronic liver disease
Interfering medications: iron-replacement therapy; treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency; anti-malarial drugs; sulfonamides; aspirin; vitamins C or E; antiretrovirals; ribavirin; dapsone; hydroxyurea; chronic opioid use
  1. Adapted from Diabetes in America, 3rd Edition, Table 1.5 [20]
  2. Conditions in bold font represent CKD or conditions that are more common in CKD
  3. Abbreviations: A1C hemoglobin A1C, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, CKD chronic kidney disease