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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by CKD stage

From: Diabetic kidney disease and risk of incident stroke among adults with type 2 diabetes

Characteristics Whole sample KDIGO CKD stages P value*
No CKD CKD G1 CKD G2 CKD G3
N 9170 5703 1218 1290 959
Age, years 62.8 (6.6) 62.1 (6.2) 60.0 (5.3) 65.2 (7.0) 67.4 (6.6) < 0.001
Women, % 38.2 39.8 36.4 27.4 45.4 < 0.001
Race/ethnicity, %       < 0.001
White 62.9 63.6 57.0 61.7 67.9  
Black 18.6 18.3 22.3 20.8 14.4  
Hispanic 7.0 6.8 7.9 7.1 6.9  
Other 11.3 11.3 12.9 10.4 10.8  
Intensive glycemic management arm, % 50.3 50.2 49.8 50.1 51.7 0.817
Body mass index, kg/m2 32.3 (5.4) 32.2 (5.3) 32.9 (5.6) 32.2 (5.5) 32.3 (5.5) < 0.001
Current smoking, % 13.8 13.1 20.9 14.2 8.2 < 0.001
Alcohol drinking, % 24.4 25.2 25.6 24.9 17.2 < 0.001
Systolic BP, mm Hg 136.3 (17.0) 133.6 (15.8) 130.9 (17.1) 142.0 (18.4) 138.6 (18.0) < 0.001
Diastolic BP, mm Hg 74.9 (10.6) 74.9 (10.3) 77.4 (10.5) 74.9 (11.2) 71.9 (11.2) < 0.001
Use of BP-lowering drug, % 83.4 80.3 84.2 90.1 92.0 < 0.001
Use of ACEI/ARB, % 69.1 65.9 71.5 75.4 76.0 < 0.001
Use of diuretics, % 36.1 32.3 31.0 43.4 55.5 < 0.001
Use of antiplatelets/ anticoagulants, % 57.5 56.4 54.8 60.7 62.5 < 0.001
Atrial fibrillation, % 1.2 0.7 1.1 2.6 2.7 < 0.001
History of CVD 31.3 27.9 33.7 37.1 40.2 < 0.001
Hemoglobin A1C, % 8.3 (1.1) 8.2 (1.0) 8.6 (1.1) 8.4 (1.1) 8.3 (1.2) < 0.001
Duration of diabetes, years 9.0 (5.0–15.0) 8.0 (4.5–14.0) 10.0 (5.0–15.0) 11.0 (7.0–18.0) 11.0 (6.0–19.0) < 0.001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 183.5 (41.7) 182.5 (40.2) 188.5 (47.3) 181.9 (41.5) 185.6 (42.8) < 0.001
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 41.8 (11.6) 42.3 (11.5) 40.8 (11.5) 41.3 (11.9) 41.0 (11.4) < 0.001
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 105.0 (34.0) 105.1 (33.2) 105.0 (35.7) 104.2 (34.9) 105.8 (34.7) 0.721
Total/HDL-cholesterol ratio 4.7 (1.7) 4.6 (1.6) 4.9 (2.0) 4.7 (1.6) 4.8 (1.7) < 0.001
UACR, mg/g 14.0 (7.0–45.0) 9.0 (6.0–14.0) 78.0 (45.0–192.0) 97.0 (51.0–239.0) 23.0 (9.0–106.0) < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 86.7 (71.8–96.7) 90.4 (77.9–97.6) 97.7 (93.9–104.2) 75.4 (67.8–82.5) 52.7 (47.3–56.7) < 0.001
  1. *P values are for comparisons between CKD stages using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables with a normal distribution, the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables with a skewed distribution, and the χ2 test for categorical variables. Data are mean (standard deviation), median (interquartile range), or proportion (%) unless otherwise indicated. CKD was classified according to the KDIGO clinical practice guidelines as follows: 1) No CKD defined as eGFR ≥ 60 and UACR < 30; CKD G1, as eGFR ≥ 90 and UACR ≥ 30; CKD G2, as eGFR between 60 and 89 and UACR ≥ 30; CKD G3, as eGFR between 30 and 59 regardless of UACR. ACEI indicates angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin-II receptor blockers, BP blood pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate in mL/min/1.73 m2, HDL high-density lipoprotein, KDIGO Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes, LDL low-density lipoprotein, UACR urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in mg/g