Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics and the significance of differences between the treatment and control groups among hearing-impaired middle-aged and older adults

From: Effects of providing free hearing aids on multiple health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with hearing loss in rural China: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics Total sample (n = 385) Treatment group (n = 150) Control group (n = 235) p value
Age (years), mean (SD) 68.50 (0.53) 68.22 (0.94) 68.68 (0.62) 0.670
Sex, N (%)     0.746
 Male 271 70.39 107 71.33 164 69.79  
 Female 114 29.61 43 28.67 71 30.21  
Hukou types, N (%)     0.167
 Rural 360 93.51 137 91.33 223 94.89  
 Urban 25 6.49 13 8.67 12 5.11  
Education, N (%)     0.173
 Illiterate 179 46.49 65 43.33 114 48.51  
 Primary school 130 33.77 59 39.34 71 30.21  
 Middle school or above 76 19.74 26 17.33 50 21.28  
Marital status, N (%)     0.010
 Alone 89 23.12 45 30.00 44 18.72  
 Married/partnered 296 76.88 105 70.00 191 81.28  
Work types, N (%)        0.518
 Non-agriculture 24 6.23 11 7.33 13 5.53  
 Agriculture 190 49.35 69 46.00 121 51.49  
 Unemployed 171 44.42 70 46.67 101 42.98  
Life sources, N (%)        0.129
 Only on one’s own 54 14.03 16 10.67 38 16.17  
 Have support from others 331 85.97 134 89.33 197 83.83  
Health insurance, N (%)        0.125
 No 15 3.90 3 2.00 12 5.11  
 Yes 370 96.10 147 98.00 223 94.89  
Pure-tone average, N (%)        0.990
 Moderate (40 dB < PTA ≤ 60 dB) 114 29.61 45 30.00 69 29.36  
 Severe (60 dB < PTA ≤ 80 dB) 144 37.40 56 37.33 88 37.45  
 Profound (PTA > 80 dB) 127 32.99 49 32.67 78 33.19  
Smoking status, N (%)        0.381
 Smoke now 123 31.95 43 28.67 80 34.04  
 Ever smoke 64 16.62 29 19.33 35 14.90  
 Never smoke 198 51.43 78 52.00 120 51.06  
Drinking status, N (%)        0.819
 Drink now 112 29.09 43 28.67 69 29.36  
 Ever drink 71 18.44 30 20.00 41 17.45  
 Never drink 202 52.47 77 51.33 125 53.19  
Social activities, N (%)        0.993
 No 100 25.97 39 26.00 61 25.96  
 At least one 285 74.03 111 74.00 174 74.04  
Social network, N (%)        0.577
 Restricted 101 26.23 37 24.67 64 27.23  
 Active 284 73.77 113 75.33 171 72.77  
Primary outcomes
 HHIE-S, mean (SD) 31.65 0.39 33.49 0.45 30.47 0.56 < 0.001
 HHIE-S-Emotional, mean (SD) 14.01 0.24 15.00 0.30 13.37 0.34 0.001
 HHIE-S-Situational, mean (SD) 17.64 0.20 18.49 0.22 17.10 0.29 < 0.001
 SF-12-Physical, mean (SD) 40.75 0.43 40.68 0.70 40.80 0.54 0.887
 SF-12-Mental, mean (SD) 40.01 0.49 40.99 0.80 39.39 0.62 0.112
 EQ-5D-5L, mean (SD) 0.76 0.01 0.75 0.02 0.77 0.01 0.611
Secondary outcomes
 Chronic diseases, N (%)        0.114
  No 101 26.23 46 30.67 55 23.40  
  Yes 284 73.77 104 69.33 180 76.60  
 ADLs, N (%)        0.315
  Unimpaired 295 76.62 119 79.33 176 74.89  
  Impaired 90 23.38 31 20.67 59 25.11  
 IADLs, N (%)        0.076
  Unimpaired 123 31.95 40 26.67 83 35.32  
  Impaired 262 68.05 110 73.33 152 64.68  
 Depressive symptoms, N (%)        0.453
  No 245 63.64 92 61.33 153 65.11  
  Yes 140 36.36 58 38.67 82 34.89  
 Cognition scores measured by MMSE, mean (SD) 16.93 0.45 17.07 0.75 16.83 0.56 0.796