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Table 2 Baseline and follow-up health outcomes of hearing-impaired middle-aged and older adults by group assignment

From: Effects of providing free hearing aids on multiple health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with hearing loss in rural China: a randomized controlled trial

Health outcomes Total sample (n = 385) Treatment group (n = 150) Control group (n = 235)
Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up Baseline Follow-up
Primary outcomes
 HHIE-S, mean (SD) 31.65 (0.39) 31.80 (0.45) 33.49 (0.45) 31.90 (0.70) 30.47 (0.56) 31.74 (0.58)
 HHIE-S-Emotional, mean (SD) 14.01 (0.24) 14.08 (0.26) 15.00 (0.30) 14.28 (0.42) 13.37 (0.34) 13.95 (0.34)
 HHIE-S-Situational, mean (SD) 17.64 (0.20) 17.72 (0.22) 18.49 (0.22) 17.61 (0.34) 17.10 (0.29) 17.79 (0.29)
 SF-12-Physical, mean (SD) 40.75 (0.43) 36.59 (0.62) 40.68 (0.70) 36.88 (0.99) 40.80 (0.54) 36.41 (0.79)
 SF-12-Mental, mean (SD) 40.01 (0.49) 45.59 (0.68) 40.99 (0.80) 45.55 (1.10) 39.39 (0.62) 45.62 (0.88)
 EQ-5D-5L, mean (SD) 0.76 (0.01) 0.74 (0.01) 0.75 (0.02) 0.74 (0.02) 0.77 (0.01) 0.74 (0.02)
Secondary outcomes
 Chronic diseases, N (%)
  No 101 (26.23) 90 (25.86) 46 (30.67) 36 (27.07) 55 (23.40) 54 (25.12)
  Yes 284 (73.77) 258 (74.14) 104 (69.33) 97 (72.93) 180 (76.60) 161 (74.88)
 ADLs, N (%)
  Unimpaired 295 (76.62) 311 (89.37) 119 (79.33) 120 (90.23) 176 (74.89) 191 (88.84)
  Impaired 90 (23.38) 37 (10.63) 31 (20.67) 13 (9.77) 59 (25.11) 24 (11.16)
 IADLs, N (%)
  Unimpaired 123 (31.95) 179 (51.14) 40 (26.67) 70 (51.85) 83 (35.32) 109 (50.70)
  Impaired 262 (68.05) 171 (48.86) 110 (73.33) 65 (48.15) 152 (64.68) 106 (49.30)
 Depressive symptoms, N (%)
  No 245 (63.64) 196 (56.00) 92 (61.33) 79 (58.52) 153 (65.11) 117 (54.42)
  Yes 140 (36.36) 154 (44.00) 58 (38.67) 56 (41.48) 82 (34.89) 98 (45.58)
 Cognition scores measured by MMSE, mean (SD) 16.93 (0.45) 17.40 (0.46) 17.07 (0.75) 17.22 (0.72) 16.83 (0.56) 17.51 (0.59)
  1. Abbreviations: HHIE-S Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version, SF-12 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, EQ-5D-5L EuroQoL 5-Dimension 5-Level, ADLs activities of daily living, IADLs instrumental activities of daily living, MMSE Mini-Mental State Exam