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Table 3 Differences in health outcomes between the intervention and control groups during baseline and follow-up hearing surveys

From: Effects of providing free hearing aids on multiple health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with hearing loss in rural China: a randomized controlled trial

Health outcomes DID
Treatment × time coefficient 95% CI p value
Primary outcomes
 HHIE-S −  2.86 − 4.85, − 0.86 0.005
 HHIE-S-Emotional − 1.42 − 2.70, − 0.15 0.029
 HHIE-S-Situational − 1.43 − 2.47, − 0.40 0.007
 SF-12-Physical 0.67 − 2.86, 4.20 0.711
 SF-12-Mental − 2.23 − 5.93, 1.47 0.236
 EQ-5D-5L 0.02 − 0.04, 0.08 0.583
Secondary outcomes
 Chronic diseases 0.05 − 0.07, 0.17 0.426
 ADLs 0.03 − 0.09, 0.14 0.648
 IADLs − 0.09 − 0.23, 0.04 0.178
 Depressive symptoms − 0.14 − 0.27, − 0.01 0.042
 Cognition scores 0.08 − 1.76, 1.91 0.935
  1. All models adjusted for age, sex, hukou types, education, marital status, work types, life sources, health insurance, pure-tone average, smoking status, drinking status, social activities, and social network
  2. Abbreviations: HHIE-S Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version, SF-12 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey, EQ-5D-5L EuroQoL 5-Dimension 5-Level, ADLs activities of daily living, IADLs instrumental activities of daily living