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Table 4 Differences in health outcomes between the intervention and control groups during baseline and follow-up hearing surveys, by social activities and social network

From: Effects of providing free hearing aids on multiple health outcomes among middle-aged and older adults with hearing loss in rural China: a randomized controlled trial

Health outcomes No social activitiesa Have social activitiesa
Treatment × time coefficient 95% CI p value Treatment × time coefficient 95% CI p value
HHIE-S 0.35 −  3.62, 4.31 0.862 − 3.89 − 6.27, − 1.52 0.001
HHIE-S-Emotional 0.51 − 2.03, 3.05 0.691 − 2.08 − 3.58, − 0.58 0.007
HHIE-S-Situational − 0.16 − 2.15, 1.83 0.871 − 1.81 − 3.07, − 0.55 0.005
Depressive symptoms − 0.14 − 0.44, 0.16 0.357 − 0.12 − 0.28, 0.03 0.109
  Restricted social networkb Active social networkb
HHIE-S − 2.97 − 7.47, 1.54 0.194 − 2.80 − 5.08, − 0.52 0.016
HHIE-S-Emotional − 2.10 − 4.90, 0.70 0.139 − 1.22 − 2.70, 0.25 0.103
HHIE-S-Situational − 0.86 − 3.08, 1.35 0.440 − 1.58 − 2.76, − 0.39 0.009
Depressive symptoms − 0.07 − 0.34, 0.20 0.612 − 0.16 − 0.31, − 0.01 0.045
  1. Abbreviations: HHIE-S Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version
  2. aAll models adjusted for age, sex, hukou types, education, marital status, work types, life sources, health insurance, pure-tone average, smoking status, drinking status, and social activities
  3. bAll models adjusted for age, sex, hukou types, education, marital status, work types, life sources, health insurance, pure-tone average, smoking status, drinking status, and social network