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Table 1 Characteristics of 1020 adolescents aged 11–17 living in the SLaM catchment area presenting to the 4 local EDs with self-harm between March 2009 and March 2013

From: Autism spectrum disorders as a risk factor for adolescent self-harm: a retrospective cohort study of 113,286 young people in the UK

Characteristics Self-harm presentations (n, %)
Male (n=186) Female (n=834)
Mean age at first self-harm presentation (SD) 15.9 (1.9) 15.6 (1.4)
Known to MH services prior to self-harm 83 (44.6) 407 (48.8)
Ethnicity
 White 88 (47.3) 357 (42.8)
 Black 28 (15.0) 212 (25.4)
 Asian 12 (6.5) 47 (5.7)
 Mixed 16 (8.6) 102 (12.2)
 Other 12 (6.5) 29 (3.5)
 Not disclosed/unknown 30 (16.1) 87 (10.4)
National neighbourhood deprivation
 Most deprived quintile 63 (33.9) 320 (38.4)
 2nd 79 (42.5) 330 (39.5)
 3rd 32 (17.2) 120 (14.4)
 4th <10 (<5.4) 44 (5.3)
 Least deprived quintile <10 (<5.4) 20 (2.4)
Type of self-harm
 Self-poisoning or overdose 95 (51.1) 617 (74.0)
 Self-injury (cutting, stabbing, self-battery) 74 (39.8) 171 (20.5)
 Both self-poisoning and self-injury <10 (<5.4) 29 (3.5)
 Other (hanging, jumping from a height, immersion in water) 14 (7.5) 17 (2.0)
ICD-10 Axis 1b(pre- or post-first self-harm) No. and prevalence of disorders (%)a
 Substance misuse disorders (F10–19) 10 (5.4) 13 (1.5)
 Depressive disorder (F32) 53 (28.5) 277 (33.2)
 Psychotic disorders (F20–29,31,32·3, F33·3) <10 (<5.4) <10 (<1.2)
 Anxiety disorder (F40–42, F43–F48) 42 (22.5) 186 (22.3)
 Eating disorder <10 (<5.4) 17 (2.0)
 Autism spectrum disorders (F84) 18 (9.7) 21 (2.5)
 Hyperkinetic disorder (F90) 19 (10.2) 15 (1.7)
 Child-onset emotional and behavioural disorders (F91-F98) 33 (17.7) 127 (15.2)
 No diagnosis 41 (22.0) 249 (29.9)
 Other <10 (<5.4) 21 (2.5)
Axis 3 intellectual disability <10 (<5.4) <10 (<1.2)
  1. aMultiple morbidities could be counted for each individual
  2. bAxis I: Clinical syndromes (psychiatric disorders including personality disorders and somatic diseases)