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Table 2 Socio-demographic, educational and clinical characteristics of the population resident in South London by gender and ASD status

From: Autism spectrum disorders as a risk factor for adolescent self-harm: a retrospective cohort study of 113,286 young people in the UK

Sample characteristics* Male (n=56,578) Female (n=56,708)
No ASD (n=54,552) ASD (n=2026) No ASD (n=56,271) ASD (n=437)
Self-harm presentation to ED 107 (0.2) 11 (0.5) 635–645** (1.1–1.1) <10 (<2·3)
Mean age at baseline (SD) 12.8 (2.0) 12.3 (1.7) 12.8 (2.0) 12.2 (1.6)
Mean duration of follow-up (SD) 2.74 (1.3) 2.73 (1.3) 2.72 (1.3) 2.80 (1.3)
Ethnicity (n, %) (n, %) (n, %) (n, %)
 White 20,238 (37.1) 770 (38.0) 20,651 (36.7) 176 (40.3)
 Black 20, 012 (36.7) 850 (42.0) 21,099 (37.5) 174 (39.8)
 Asian 4788 (8.8) 78 (3.9) 4869 (8.7) 24 (5.5)
 Mixed 6013 (11.0) 237 (11.7) 6275 (11.2) 45 (10.3)
 Other 1928 (3.5) 42 (2.1) 1891 (3.4) <10 (<2.3)
 Not disclosed/unknown 1575 (2.9) 49 (2.4) 1486 (2.6) 12 (2.8)
National neighbourhood deprivation
 Most deprived quintile 19,805 (36.3) 824 (40.8) 20,222 (40.0) 173 (39.6)
 2nd 22,100 (40.5) 804 (39.8) 22,794 (40.5) 179 (40.1)
 3rd 7759 (14.2) 251 (12.4) 8227 (14.6) 550 (12.6)
 4th 3283 (6.0) 99 (4.9) 3322 (5.9) 24 (5.5)
 Least deprived quintile 1579 (2.9) 42 (2.1) 1688 (3.0) <10 (<2.3)
Special education needsa
 Learning Difficulties (specific/moderate) 8898 (16.3) 548 (27.1) 6085 (10.8) 133 (30.4)
 Learning Difficulties (severe/ profound) 591 (1.1) 250 (12.3) 381 (0.7) 65 (14.9)
 Behavioural, Emotional, Social problems 6726 (12.3) 548 (27.1) 3548 (6.3) 89 (20.4)
 Speech, language and communication 4291 (7.9) 806 (39.8) 2134 (3.8) 161 (36.8)
 Hearing, vision or physical disability 795 (1.5) 69 (3.4) 735 (1.3) 16 (3.4)
First languagea
 English 39,920 (73.2) 1661 (82.0) 40,815 (72.5) 344 (78.7)
 Other 13,612 (25.0) 341 (16.8) 14, 541 (25.9) 89 (20.4)
 Not disclosed 1022 (1.9) 24 (1.2) 915 (1.6) <10 (<2.3)
School type
 Mainstream 53,868 (98.7) 1597 (78.8) 56,024 (99.6) 333 (76.2)
 Special school 579 (1.1) 418 (20.6) 237 (0.4) 104 (23.8)
 Pupil referral units 107 (0.2) 11 (0.5) 10 (0.02) 0 (0)
Educational attainment (key stage two)b
 Lowest quintile 12, 220 (23.1) 1146 (59.0) 10, 461 (19.2) 296 (69.7)
 Second 10,461 (19.8) 277 (14.3) 10,750 (19.7) 55 (12.9)
 Third 10,301(19.5) 224 (11.5) 11,141 (20.4) 29 (6.8)
 Fourth 10,283 (19.5) 168 (8.6) 10,078 (20.3) 22 (5.2)
 Highest quintile 9577 (18.1) 128 (6.6) 11,172 (20.4) 23 (5.4)
Less than 80% attendancec 2587 (4.9) 118 (6.0) 2538 (4.7) 22 (5.2)
Fixed term exclusionsa 5847 (10.7) 239 (11.8) 2790 (5.0) 26 (6.0)
Other social factors
 Summer birth (May-Aug) 18,941 (34.7) 720 (35.5) 19,185 (34.1) 140 (32.0)
 Free school meals a 13,105 (24.0) 696 (34.5) 13,391 (23.8) 167 (38.2)
 Looked after child status d 420 (0.8) 30 (1.5) 397 (0.7) 12 (2.8)
ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder 670 (1.2) 131 (6.5) 168 (0.3) 23 (5.3)
  1. *Missing = 257 non-matched self-harm cases
  2. **Range presented to avoid statistical disclosure in the ASD group
  3. Missing values. a257, b3731, c4049, and d4547