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Table 4 An analysis of educational and clinical risk factors for emergency presentations with self-harm (n=1020) amongst 113,543 adolescents aged 11–17 residing in South London using crude and multivariable cox-regression analyses

From: Autism spectrum disorders as a risk factor for adolescent self-harm: a retrospective cohort study of 113,286 young people in the UK

Educational and clinical characteristics Male (n=56,581) Female (n=56,709)
No self-harm (n=56,460) Self-harm (n=120) Unadjusted hazard ratio Adjusted hazard ratioe No self-harm (n=56,063) Self-harm (n=646) Unadjusted hazard ratio Adjusted hazard ratioe
(n, %) (n, %) (n, %) (n, %)
Special education needsa
 Autism spectrum disorders 2015 (3.5) 11 (9.2) 2.73 (1.47–5.09)** 2.79 (1.40–5.57)** 434 (0.8) <10 (<1·5) 0.57 (0.18–1.78) 0.52 (0.16–1.63)
 Learning difficulties (specific/moderate) 9418 (16.7) 28 (23.3) 1.44 (0.95–2.20) 1.07 (0.62–1.76) 6113 (10.9) 105 (16·3) 1.50 (1.22–1.85)** 0.99 (0.77–1.27)
 Learning difficulties (severe/profound) 840 (1.5) <10 (<8.3) 0.55 (0.08–3.92) 0.39 (0.05–2.98) 444 (0.8) <10 (<1·5) 0.38 (0.09–1.52) 0.40 (0.10–1·67)
 Behavioural, emotional, social 7235 (12.8) 39 (32.5) 3.14 (2.19–4.70)** 1.66 (1.02–2.73)* 3494 (6.2) 143 (22·1) 4.20 (3.48–5.05)** 2.31 (1.84–2.88)**
 Speech, language and communication 5086 (9.0) 11 (9.2) 1.06 (0.57–1.98) 0.99 (0.51–1.95) 2269 (4.1) 26 (4·0) 1.01 (0.68–1.50) 1.13 (0.74–1.72)
 Hearing, vision or physical disability 860 (1.5) <10 (<8.3) 2.17 (0.80–5.89) 2.13 (0.77–5.85) 746 (1.3) 5 (0·8) 0.56 (0.23–1.34) 0.59 (0.25–1.42)
First languagea
 English 41,482 (73.5) 100 (83.3) Reference Reference 40,652 (72.5) 508 (78.6) Reference Reference
 Other 13,942 (24.7) 11 (9.2) 0.33 (0.18–0.62)** 0.50 (0.25–0.98)* 14, 529 (25.9) 101 (15.6) 0.57 (0.46–0.70)** 0.77 (0.61–0.98)*
 Not disclosed 1038 (1.8) <10 (<8.3) 4.14 (2.10–8.2)** n/a 882 (1.6) 37 (5.7) 3.82 (2.74–5.35)** 1.72 (0.91–3.02)
Educational attainment (key stage two)b
 Lowest quintile 13,328 (24.4) 40 (33.3) reference Reference 10,586 (19.5) 174 (26.9) Reference Reference
 Second 10,713 (19.6) 26 (21.6) 0.80 (0.40–1.32) 1.07 (0.60–1.90) 10,672 (19.6) 135 (20.9) 0.78 (0.62–0.97)* 1.01 (0.78–1.29)
 Third 10,501 (19.2) 24 (20.0) 0.82 (0.49–1.36) 1.56 (0.87–2.78) 11,046 (20.3) 126 (19.5) 0.73 (0.58–0.92)** 1.18 (0.90–1.52)
 Fourth 10,437 (19.1) 14 (11.7) 0.50 (0.27–0.92)* 1.01 (0.50–2.09) 10,974 (20.2) 127 (19.7) 0.77 (0.61–0.97)* 1.35 (1.04–1.77)*
 Highest quintile 99689 (17.7) 16 (13.3) 0.73 (0.41–1.31) 1.75 (0.85–3.55) 11,112 (20.4) 84 (13.0) 0.55 (0.44–0.75)** 1.15 (0.85–1.57)
Less than 80% attendancec 2676 (4.9) 29 (24.2) 6.50 (4.24–9.92)** 3.50 (2.16–5.70)** 2430 (4.5) 130 (20.1) 5.42 (4.50–6.58)** 2.84 (2.70–3.51)**
Fixed term exclusionsa 6054 (10.7) 32 (26.7) 2.88 (1.92–4.31)** 1.30 (0.78–2.15) 2696 (4.8) 120 (18.6) 4.41 (3.61–5.37)** 1.69 (1.32–2.15)**
Other social factors   
 Summer birth (May-Aug) 19,615 (34.7) 47 (39·1) 1.21 (0.84–1.75) 1.23 (0.83–1.83) 19,104 (34.1) 222 (34·4) 1.02 (0.87–1.20) 1.02 (0.86–1.21)
 Free school meals a 13, 764 (24.4) 37 (30·8) 1.40 (0.95–2.05) 1.35 (0.87–2.10) 13,369 (22.1) 189 (29·3) 1.32 (1.11–1.56)** 1.22 (1.02–1.48)*
 Looked after Child status d 443 (0.8) <10 (<8·3) 8.04 (3.75–17.3)** 3.18 (1.14–8.91)* 382 (0.7) 27 (4·3) 6.20 (4.22–9.12)** 3.16 (2.07–4.84)**
ICD-10 Hyperkinetic disorder 788 (1.4) 19 (15·8) 8.0 (5.0–12.8)** 4.36 (2.20–8.68)** 177 (0.3) 15 (1·8) 5.70 (3.42–9.50)** 3.58 (2.03–6.29)**
  1. *P0·05, **P0·01; missing values. a257, b3731, c4049, d4547, and eAdjusted for all other factors listed in Tables 3 and 4