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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by frequency of dairy intake at baseline survey (2004–2008)

From: Dairy consumption and risks of total and site-specific cancers in Chinese adults: an 11-year prospective study of 0.5 million people

Characteristic Frequency of dairy intake Overall
(n = 510,146)
Never/rarely Monthly Regular
(n = 349,325) (n = 56,750) (n = 104,071)
Usual dairy intake, g/daya 24.0 44.4 80.8 37.9
Mean age (SD), years 51.9 (11.1) 51.7 (10.8) 52.5 (11.8) 52.0 (10.7)
Women, % 58.3 57.5 62.1 59.0
Urban, % 30.8 54.2 83.0 44.1
Education >6 years, % 42.2 54.9 69.7 49.2
Household income >20,000 yuan/year, % 36.0 50.9 60.8 42.7
Ever regular smoking in men, % 76.0 73.7 68.6 74.3
Ever regular smoking in women, % 3.6 3.1 2.2 3.2
Ever regular alcohol drinking in men, % 38.6 34.6 32.8 37.0
Ever regular alcohol drinking in women, % 2.3 2.3 3.1 2.5
Frequency of food intake, %b
 Red meat 44.9 48.6 54.3 47.2
 Poultry 23.6 30.1 42.7 28.2
 Fish 7.8 9.2 12.5 8.9
 Eggs 20.3 26.5 37.1 24.4
 Fresh fruit 21.9 28.5 48.9 28.2
 Fresh vegetables 94.4 93.9 96.4 94.8
 Preserved vegetables 24.5 19.4 18.0 22.6
 Soy products 8.0 13.2 14.4 9.9
 Coarse grain products 12.9 12.3 18.4 13.9
 Rice 71.1 71.8 73.4 71.7
 Wheat products 44.0 47.6 57.7 47.2
Mean total physical activity (SD), MET-h/day 21.4 (12.4) 20.8 (12.1) 20.4 (13.3) 21.1 (13.9)
Mean BMI (SD), kg/m2 23.7 (3.4) 23.6 (3.3) 23.4 (3.6) 23.7 (3.4)
HBsAg positive, %c 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Prevalent cardiovascular disease, %d 4.1 4.9 5.5 4.5
Prevalent diabetes, %e 5.4 6.3 7.4 5.9
Self-rated poor health, % 10.4 10.4 9.7 10.2
  1. Multiple linear regression (for continuous outcomes) or logistic regression (for binary outcomes) was used to calculate the means (SDs) or percentages of various baseline characteristics across three frequency categories of dairy consumption (i.e. never/rarely, monthly and ≥1 day/week-characterized as regular), with adjustments for age (continuous), sex (dichotomous variable) and region (ten regions), where appropriate
  2. BMI body mass index, HBsAg hepatitis B surface antigen, MET metabolic equivalent of task hours, SD standard deviation
  3. aCrude mean values from the second resurvey (2013–2014) of randomly selected 24,700 participants without cancer at either baseline or second resurvey
  4. bPercentage values indicate the frequency intake by the participants as ‘daily’ for fresh vegetable intake; ‘≥1 day/week’ for poultry intake and ‘≥4 days/week’ (i.e. ‘regular’) for all other food groups
  5. cValues for HBsAg status were missing for 8159 participants
  6. dIncluding participants with self-reported prior history of either chronic heart disease, stroke or transient ischemic attack
  7. eIncluding participants with either screen-detected or self-reported prior history of physician-diagnosed diabetes