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Table 3 Frequency of clinical and basic laboratory features in study patients with a single diagnosis of ubiquitous priority infection

From: Etiological spectrum of persistent fever in the tropics and predictors of ubiquitous infections: a prospective four-country study with pooled analysis

Features Malaria (n = 131) Tuberculosis (n = 120) Enteric fever (n = 26) Leptospirosis (n = 64) Rickettsiosis (n = 38) New HIV (n = 12) Other diagnoses (n = 1531)
Symptoms
 Headache 92 (70 ; 62–78) 66 (55 ; 46–64) 18 (69; 50–84) 44 (69; 57–79) 27 (71; 55–83) 5 (42; 19–68) 1002/1527 (66; 63–68)
 Myalgia 29 (22; 16–30) 13 (11; 6–18) 3 (12; 4–29) 17 (27; 17–38) 9 (24; 13–39) 4 (33; 14–61) 509/1528 (33; 31–36)
 Cough 32 (24; 18–32) 110 (92; 85–95) 9 (35; 19–54) 31 (48; 37–60) 15 (39; 26–55) 6 (50; 25–75) 750/1530 (49; 47–52)
 Dyspnea 17 (13; 8–20) 68 (57; 43–65) 3 (12; 4–29) 17 (27; 17–38) 4/37 (11; 4–25) 3 (25; 22–27) 374/1521 (25; 22–27)
 Vomiting 40 (31; 23–39) 14 (12; 7–19) 8 (31; 16–50) 12 (19; 11–30) 9 (24; 13–39) 1 (8; 1–35) 276/1530 (18; 16–20)
 Diarrhea 5 (4; 2–9) 19 (16; 10–23) 11 (42; 26–61) 6 (9; 4–19) 3 (8; 3–21) 3 (25; 9–53) 231/1791 (13; 11–15)
 Abdominal pain 86 (66; 57–73) 35 (29; 22–38) 15 (58; 39–74) 20 (31; 21–43) 10 (26; 15–42) 4 (33; 14–61) 681/1529 (45; 42–47)
 Weight loss 60 (46; 38–55) 104/114 (91; 85–95) 14 (54; 35–71) 34/61 (56; 43–67) 14/27 (52; 34–69) 9 (75; 47–91) 857/1469 (58; 56–61)
Signs
 Skin lesion or rash 14 (11; 6–17) 11 (9; 5–16) 0 (0; 0–13) 7 (11; 5–21) 0 (0; 0–9) 0 (0; 0–24) 132/1530 (9; 7–10)
 Lymphadenopathies 6 (5; 2–10) 3 (3; 1–7) 0 (0; 0–13) 1 (1.5; 0–8) 0 (0; 0–9) 2 (17; 5–45) 71 (5; 4–6)
 Abdominal tenderness 36 (28; 21–36) 29 (24; 17–33) 10 (38; 22–57) 17 (27; 17–38) 5 (13; 6–27) 4 (33; 14–61) 479 (31; 24–34)
 Hepatomegaly 12 (9; 5–15) 5 (4; 2–9) 2 (8; 2–24) 2 (3; 1–11) 6 (16; 7–30) 0 (0; 0–24) 144 (9; 8–11)
 Splenomegaly 22 (17; 11–24) 4 (3; 1–8) 3 (12; 4–29) 4 (6; 2–15) 5 (13; 6–27) 0 (0; 0–24) 152 (10; 9–12)
 Jaundice 9 (7; 4–13) 2 (2; 0–6) 1 (4; 1–19) 4 (6; 2–15) 2 (5; 1–17) 0 (0; 0–24) 73 (5; 4–6)
 Cachexia 26 (20; 14–27) 45 (38; 29–46) 3 (12; 4–29) 6 (9; 4–19) 4 (11; 4–24) 5 (42; 19–68) 212/1530 (14; 12–16)
Laboratory results
 Hemoglobin level < 10 g/dL) 56 (43; 35–51) 43 (36; 28–45) 5 (19; 9–38) 11 (17; 10–28) 7/37 (19; 9–34) 8 (67; 39–86) 342/1522 (23; 21–25)
 WBC count > 10,000/μL 15/106 (14; 9–22) 54/117 (46; 37 – 55) 1/23 (4; 1–21) 21/63 (33; 23–46) 10/36 (28; 16–44) 2 (17; 5–45) 377/1482 (25; 23–28)
 Elevated alanine aminotransferase 15/130 (12; 7–18) 38 (32; 24–40) 18/25 (72; 52–89) 22 (34; 24–47) 23/34 (68; 51–81) 1 (8; 1–35) 313/1494 (21; 19–23)
 Raised creatinine level 2/88 (2; 1–8) 15/113 (13; 8–21) 3/18 (17; 6–39) 4/53 (8; 3–18) 5/35 (14; 6–29) 1/8 (12; 2–47) 94/902 (10; 9–13)
 Protein (urine strip) 40/128 (31; 24–40) 24/110 (22; 15–30) 12 (46; 29–65) 7/61 (11; 6–22) 5 (13; 6–27) 4 (33; 14–61) 330/1494 (22; 20–24)
  1. All results are n or n/n (%; 95% confidence interval)