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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the participants by four types of social contact isolation in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort study

From: Associations of face-to-face and non-face-to-face social isolation with all-cause and cause-specific mortality: 13-year follow-up of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort study

  Face-to-face contact with co-inhabitants Face-to-face contact with non-co-inhabitants Non-face-to-face contact (by telephone/mail) Club/organization contact
≥ 3 people < 3 people Live alone ≥ 1 time/month < 1time/month No such contact ≥ 1 time/month < 1 time/month No such contact ≥ 1 time/month < 1 time/month
Number of participants 27,701 1926 647 26,438 3582 160 23,557 4913 1707 13,873 16,253
Sex, men % 7332 (26.9) 644 (33.4) 198 (30.6) ** 7115 (26.9) 1164 (32.5) 58 (36.3) ** 6199 (26.3) 1606 (32.7) 530 (31.1) ** 3449 (24.9) 4879 (30.0) **
Age, years, mean (SD) 61.9 (7.0) 62.9 (7.7) 64.2 (8.3) ** 61.9 (7.1) 62.9 (7.0) 64.3 (7.9) ** 61.8 (7.1) 62.7 (7.1) 63.8 (7.7) ** 62.9 (7.1) 61.3 (7.1) **
Self-rated health, good/very good, % 22,183 (82.9) 1397 (75.7) 418 (69.7) ** 21,498 (83.0) 2676 (76.8) 108 (69.7) ** 19,270 (83.5) 3737 (77.8) 1269 (76.7) ** 11,401 (83.7) 12,836 (80.9) **
Socioeconomic position
 Education, %
  ≤ Primary 11,456 (42.1) 923 (48.0) 389 (60.1) ** 11,158 (42.2) 1707 (47.7) 89 (56.0) ** 9478 (40.3) 2387 (48.6) 1087 (63.7) ** 5766 (41.6) 7173 (44.2) **
  Middle school 13,262 (48.7) 884 (45.9) 224 (34.6) 12,902 (48.8) 1555 (43.4) 61 (38.4) 11,833 (50.3) 2142 (43.6) 543 (31.8) 6748 (48.7) 7738 (48.1)
  ≥ College 2506 (9.2) 119 (6.2) 34 (5.3) 2370 (9.0) 318 (8.8) 9 (5.7) 2239 (9.5) 381 (7.8) 76 (4.5) 1354 (9.8) 1336 (8.2)
 Occupation, %
  Manual 16,423 (60.6) 1256 (65.7) 463 (72.5) ** 15,947 (60.65) 2295 (64.3) 110 (69.2) ** 13,952 (59.6) 3118 (63.7) 1284 (75.7) ** 8233 (59.7) 10,095 (62.4) **
  Non-manual 6532 (24.1) 415 (21.7) 93 (14.6) 6329 (24.1) 794 (22.2) 33 (20.8) 5883 (25.1) 1049 (21.4) 222 (13.1) 3848 (27.9) 3288 (20.3)
  Others 4146 (15.3) 240 (12.6) 83 (12.9) 4017 (15.3) 481 (13.5) 16 (10.1) 3593 (15.3) 728 (14.9) 191 (11.3) 1720 (12.5) 2786 (17.2)
 Family income, CNY/year, %
  ≤ 30,000 10,191 (37.5) 826 (43.1) 271 (42.0) ** 9978 (37.8) 1409 (39.4) 78 (48.8) ** 8793 (37.4) 1912 (39.0) 761 (44.7) ** 5351 (38.6) 6099 (37,6) **
  > 30,000 10,534 (38.7) 659 (34.2) 186 (28.8) 10,207 (38.7) 1250 (34.9) 38 (23.8) 9300 (39.5) 1715 (34.9) 478 (28.1) 5055 (36.5) 6415 (39.5)
  Do not know 6478 (23.9) 436 (22.8) 190 (29.2) 62,20 (23.6) 919 (25.7) 44 (27.5) 5436 (23.1) 1281 (26.1) 464 (27.3) 3451 (24.9) 3718 (22.9)
Biological factors
 BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 23.8 (3.3) 23.7 (3.3) 23.7 (3.2) 23.8 (3.3) 23.8 (3.4) 23.2 (3.3) 23.8 (3.3) 23.7 (3.3) 23.6 (3.4) * 23.8 (3.3) 23.7 (3.3)
 SBP, mmHg, mean (SD) 130.2 (22.0) 131.3 (22.8) 133.3 (23.0) * 130.3 (22.0) 131.1 (23.0) 130.1 (22.7) 130.0 (21.9) 131.2 (22.7) 133.7 (23.4) * 131.7 (22.2) 129.3 (22.0)
 DBP, mmHg, mean (SD) 73.6 (11.2) 73.8 (11.4) 73.6 (11.3) 73.6 (11.2) 73.8 (11.6) 72.9 (11.0) 73.6 (11.2) 73.8 (11.4) 74.0 (11.5) 73.9 (11.2) 73.4 (11.3)
 FG, mmol/L, mean (SD) 5.7 (1.6) 5.8 (1.7) 5.9 (1.7) * 5.7 (1.7) 5.8 (1.7) 6.0 (2.4) 5.7 (1.6) 5.8 (1.7) 5.8 (1.9) 5.8 (1.6) 5.7 (1.7)
Behavioral factors
 Smoking status, %
  Never 21,171 (81.5) 1464 (76.2) 486 (75.4) ** 21,497 (81.4) 2757 (77.2) 109 (68.1) ** 19,280 (81.9) 3766 (76.8) 1317 (77.3) ** 11,544 (83.3) 12,776 (78.7) **
  Former 2396 (8.8) 230 (11.8) 78 (12.1) 2350 (8.9) 393 (11.0) 21 (13.1) 2076 (8.8) 526 (10.7) 160 (9.4) 1243 (9.0) 1517 (9.3)
  Current 2643 (9.7) 229 (11.9) 81 (12.6) 2569 (9.7) 423 (11.8) 30 (18.8) 2180 (9.3) 615 (12.5) 226 (13.3) 1070 (7.7) 1945 (12.0)
 Alcohol use, %
  Never 19,926 (73.5) 1205 (62.9) 315 (50.2) ** 19,152 (72.8) 2472 (69.4) 84 (52.5) ** 17,093 (72.9) 3397 (69.6) 1216 (71.5) ** 10,114 (73.3) 11,560 (71.5) **
  Former 902 (3.3) 89 (4.7) 47 (7.5) 935 (3.55) 113 (3.17) 13 (8.1) 769 (3.3) 224 (4.6) 69 (4.1) 404 (2.9) 658 (4.1)
  Current 6285 (23.2) 621 (32.4) 267 (42.3) 6220 (23.6) 975 (27.4) 63 (39.4) 5581 (23.8) 1259 (25.8) 417 (24.5) 3280 (23.8) 3957 (24.5)
 Physical activity, %
  Inactive 2246 (8.3) 142 (7.3) 25 (3.8) ** 2091 (7.9) 335 (9.4) 5 (3.1) ** 1862 (7.9) 450 (9.2) 117 (6.9) ** 653 (4.7) 1778 (10.9) **
  Minimally active 11,382 (41.8) 657 (34.1) 132 (20.4) 10,880 (41.2) 1385 (38.7) 63 (39.4) 9439 (40.1) 2099 (42.7) 790 (46.3) 5006 (36.1) 7308 (45.0)
  Active 13,607 (50.0) 1127 (58.5) 490 (75.7) 13,467 (50.9) 1862 (52.0) 92 (57.5) 12,256 (52.0) 2364 (48.1) 800 (46.9) 8214 (59.2) 7167 (44.1)
Psychological factors
 Stress level (PPS-14), mean (SD) (n = 19,947) 14.7 (4.3) 15.8 (4.5) 16.8 (5.0) ** 14.7 (4.3) 14.8 (4.6) 15.6 (5.4) ** 14.7 (4.2) 14.9 (4.6) 15.4 (5.1) ** 14.9 (4.2) 14.6 (4.4) **
 Cognitive function (DWRT), mean (SD) 5.5 (1.8) 5.4 (2.0) 5.3 (2.2) ** 5.5 (1.8) 5.3 (1.9) 4.6 (2.3) ** 5.6 (1.8) 5.4 (1.8) 5.0 (2.0) ** 5.6 (1.8) 5.4 (1.9) **
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001
  2. CNY Chinese Yuan Renminbi (US$1 = 7 CNY), PSS-14 Perceived Stress Scale-14 items, DWRT Delayed Word Recall Test, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FG fasting glucose