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Table 4 Changes in adiposity, biochemical, and dietary-related secondary outcomes at 6- and 16–18-month (dietary variables only) follow-up

From: The effectiveness of the Structured Health Intervention For Truckers (SHIFT): a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT)

Anthropometric measures Number of clusters Number of participants Baseline
Mean (SD)
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
Mean change from baseline to follow-up (SD)a SHIFT vs. control
Control SHIFT Control SHIFT Control SHIFT Control SHIFT Control SHIFT Adjusted mean difference (95% CI)a p-value
Weight, kg
 6 months 13 12 143 112 94.9 (17.5) 96.9 (16.0) 94.8 (17.4) 95.5 (16.2) − 0.1 (4.48) − 1.4 (5.2) − 1.2 (− 2.6, 0.1) 0.078
BMI, kg/m2
 6 months 13 12 143 112 29.9 (5.2) 30.7 (5.0) 29.9 (5.1) 30.3 (5.1) − 0.0 (1.4) − 0.4 (1.6) − 0.4 (− 0.8, 0.1) 0.086
% Body fat
 6 months 13 10 141 96 26.3 (5.9) 27.3 (5.9) 26.4 (6.0) 27.1 (5.8) 0.1 (1.7) − 0.2 (2.0) − 0.2 (− 0.7, 0.3) 0.435
Waist circumference, cm
 6 months 13 11 143 103 103.7 (13.7) 104.9 (12.7) 103.8 (13.9) 103.6 (12.7) 0.1 (5.1) − 1.3 (6.7) − 1.1 (− 2.7, 0.5) 0.195
HbA1c, mmol/mol
 6 months 13 10 139 89 36.8 (9.4) 35.6 (10.3) 37.1 (10.4) 35.0 (9.0) 0.2 (6.0) − 0.6 (6.9) − 1.9 (− 4.9, 1.2) 0.229
Triglycerides, mmol/l
 6 months 13 10 143 98 1.7 (1.1) 1.6 (0.9) 1.7 (1.1) 1.7 (1.1) 0.1 (1.0) 0.04 (0.9) − 0.08 (− 0.3, 0.2) 0.530
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l
 6 months 13 10 143 98 1.2 (0.4) 1.2 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.3) 0.02 (0.2) 0.1 (0.2) 0.04 (− 0.02, 0.1) 0.241
LDL cholesterol, mmol/l
 6 months 13 10 143 98 2.9 (0.8) 2.8 (0.8) 2.9 (0.9) 2.8 (0.9) − 0.01 (0.9) − 0.03 (0.8) 0.0 (− 0.2, 0.2) 0.973
Total cholesterol, mmol/l
 6 months 13 10 143 98 4.4 (0.9) 4.4 (0.9) 4.5 (1.0) 4.4 (1.0) 0.02 (0.9) 0.1 (0.9) 0.02 (− 0.2, 0.2) 0.868
Fruit (grams/day)
 6 months 13 12 147 124 100.8 (122.2) 135.4 (158.1) 123.9 (142.3) 120.6 (153.6) 23.1 (128.1) − 14.8 (159.5) − 20.6 (− 64.5, 23.3) 0.359
 16–18 months 12 10 112 102 92.2 (109.4) 127.4 (152.7) 89.6 (111.8) 112.1 (148.0) − 2.7 (105.3) − 15.2 (162.8) 7.4 (− 30.3, 45.2) 0.700
Vegetables (grams/day)
 6 months 13 12 147 124 110.5 (135.3) 127.7 (165.8) 106.1 (142.1) 131.9 (184.6) − 4.4 (167.3) 4.1 (207.0) 27.3 (− 24.8, 79.4) 0.305
 16–18 months 12 10 112 102 95.1 (98.1) 127.3 (167.8) 100.2 (145) 90.0 (101.0) 5.1 (148.5) − 37.2 (157.4) − 25.3 (− 68.5, 17.9) 0.251
Dietary quality score b
 6 months 13 12 147 124 11.1 (2.0) 11.1 (2.1) 11.4 (1.7) 11.1 (2.0) 0.3 (2.2) − 0.01 (2.4) − 0.2 (− 0.7, 0.2) 0.241
 16–18 months 12 11 112 102 11.1 (1.8) 11.0 (2.0) 11.3 (1.6) 11.3 (1.8) 0.1 (2.0) 0.3 (2.3) 0.07 (− 0.4, 0.5) 0.778
  1. aAdjusted for variable at baseline
  2. bDietary quality score ranges from 5–15, with higher scores indicating higher dietary quality based on consumption of fruit, vegetables, oily fish, fats and non-milk extrinsic sugars